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APUSH chapter 5
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Why did populations of the colonists rise above their English counterparts?
Because of the number of immigrants and remarkable fertility of Americans, black and white.
What was the main ethnic and racial composition of the American People at this time?
Germans, Dutch, Scotch, Irish, English, French, Swedes, and African.
Why and where did the Germans come to America?
The main Germans who came to America came because they were farmers displaced by crop failures. Or they were political refugees trying to flee the autocratic rule of their countries. Most came to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (some to Charleston) and brought their culture and language with them.
Why and where did the Scots-Irish come to America?
Drought, rent increases, and persecution by the Irish Catholic church. They went to Pennsylvania because of its religious tolerance and its tax-free state. They were experienced frontiersmen with no love for the English Government and a firey distaste for Native Americans.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
What was the Regulator Movement?
Men of the Carolina upcountry who were underrepresented in the colonial assembly rose up against the taxes imposed on them by local sheriffs.
Where were most African slaves concentrated? Why?
90% of African slaves were concentrated in the south because of the need for tenacious care for their many plantations. It was an already hostile environment and back-breaking work to top it off. In regions like Chesapeake, however, families began to grow and they relied less on shipments from the slave trade. African American culture also began to grow as more poured in and were born on foreign soil.
What was the New York slave revolt?
it was in 1712 blacks killed nine whites 21 blacks executed
What was the Carolina slave revolt?
In 1739, when blacks along the Stono River tried to march on Spanish Florida but were stopped by local militia.
River along which the South Carolina slave revolt occurred.
How was African American culture born?
When African slaves had children in America, now African Americans, they passed on their traditions, but these African Americans adapted to their enviornment and combined aspects of African and English culture to form African American culture. Born from this culture was Jazz, Gospel, "ringshouts", etc.
What was the triangular trade?
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
What was the Molasses Act?
Taxed molasses, rum, and sugar that the colonies imported from all countries except Great Britain
Transportation in Colonial America:
-clouds of dust, quagmires of mud
-three-strewn roads, rickety bridges, carriage overturns, runaway horses
-waterways, leading to Inns
What were the two tax supported churches in colonial America?
The Anglican (English) and Congregational (Puritan) churches. Both churches began to lose their strictness.
What is Arminianism?
Belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace.
What was the Great Awakening?
A religious revival that sparked from the teachings of Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield.
Orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality.
Ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield during the Great Awakening.
What was education like in the American Colonies?
It was largely religious based and instruction was quite bland, but it was a big step considering England education was only for the aristocratic. It was mostly concentrated in New England and some in the Middle Colonies, a severe lack in the South.
What is Poor Richard's Almanac?
-written by Benjamin Franklin who was seen as a literary light
-contained sayings from individuals of the age
-"honesty is the best policy"
-2nd most read book in america
-heavy influence on american character
What was the Zenger Trial?
The Zenger Case was a trial against the author of an article (John Zenger)in a New York City newspaper that criticized a corrupt British governor. Zenger was charged with sedition and libel, but he was acquitted.
The event was a contribution to the First Amendment policy of freedom of the press.
The Royal Colonies
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
The Proprietary Colonies
Colonies-Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware-under the control of local proprietors, who appointed colonial governors.
Advances in government in the American Colonies
Not an entire democracy, but an infant version of one. In New England and the Middle colonies, there were town meetings with open discussion and open voting. In the south however it was a county government. In order to be eligible to vote you did have to have land and certain religious requirements but even colonists able to vote rarely exercised it.
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