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Four truths about sport and exercise (p. 96)
A) Physical activity is always accompanied by subjective experiences.
B) Subjective experiences of physical activity are unique.
C) We might perform physical activities without understanding why.
D) Physical activity will not be meaningful unless we enjoy it.
Key Point: One of the primary reasons we participate in exercise and sport is that they supply us with unique forms of subjective experiences that are not available in other daily activities.
Why subjective experiences are important (p. 99); focus on internal dynamics rather than external performance
The nature of subjective experiences (p. 100)
Immediate subjective experiences (p. 100)
Replayed subjective experiences (p. 101)
Key Point: The subjective experiences that accompany physical activity may have a profound effect on us during and immediately after our performances. Reflecting on our past experiences may help put them into a more comprehensive and meaningful frame of reference.
Components of subjective experiences (p. 102)
Sensations and perceptions
Emotions and emotional responses
Knowledge and subjective experience (PowerPoint slide 7)
Key Point: Performing physical activities can be a source of knowledge, including knowledge about our motivations for engaging in activity, knowledge about different dimensions of reality, and knowledge of our own performance capabilities.Talking about subjective experiences
Key Point: It can be difficult to find the right words to communicate our subjective experiences of sport and exercise to others. It is important that we try, however, because this helps us better understand the personal meanings we find in physical activity.
Describing our subjective experiences
Intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to physical activity
Intrinsic (autotelic) approaches to exercise for health (p. 106)
Internalizing physical activity (p. 108)
Key Point: Even though sport and exercise may provide participants with many benefits, there is reason to believe that most people engage in them because of the unique subjective experiences they offer.
Factors affecting our enjoyment of physical activity (p. 109; figure 4.3)
Factors related to the activity (p. 109)
Evenly matched challenges
Clear goals and feedback
Key Point: We are more likely to enjoy physical activities when the challenges of the activity match our abilities, when the activity has clear goals and feedback, and when the activity is arranged in a competitive framework.
Factors related to the performer (p. 111)
Disposition (temporary or situational) (p. 111)
Key Point: Activities tend to be more enjoyable when we feel competent to perform them and allow ourselves to become absorbed in them, and when we experience a sense of control or mastery over our environment.
Attitudes toward physical activity (Kenyon's ATPA) (p. 112; OSG activity 4.4)
Physical activity as a social experience
Physical activity for health and fitness
Physical activity as the pursuit of vertigo
Physical activity as an aesthetic experience
Physical activity as a cathartic experience
Physical activity as an ascetic experience
Factors related to the social context (p. 116)
Physical activity alone versus with others
Physical activity and the environment
Physical activity and the sense of freedom
Key Point: Physical activities are never performed in a vacuum; the social context and immediate environment surrounding them can affect our sense of enjoyment. As an example, feeling forced to engage in an activity rather than freely choosing to do it can make it less enjoyable.
Watching sports as a subjective experience (p. 118)
Ways of watching sports (p. 119)
Disinterested sport spectating
Key Point: The orientation of spectators toward games determines whether they will watch them in a vicarious fashion, in which they imagine themselves as participants, or in a disinterested fashion, in which they maintain a more objective posture.
Factors affecting enjoyment of sports watching (p. 119; PowerPoint slide 23)
Feelings about competing teams and players
Human drama of sport competition
Importance of subjective experience
Physical activity involves emotions, thoughts, and reactions.
Physical activity professionals help people appreciate physical activity.
Subjective experiences are gained by participating or watching.
Our enjoyment of an activity is one of the greatest determinants as to whether we continue to engage in that physical activity. (This is significant if maintaining or increasing participation is key.)
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