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Anatomy & Physiology Unit 2 Test Basic Chemistry
Terms in this set (23)
Below is a list of events that occur in carbohydrate digestion.
I. Maltase, lactase, and sucrase break disaccharides into monosaccharides.
II. Pancreatic amylase splits starch and glycogen into disaccharides.
III. Salivary glands release salivary amylase.
What is the proper order for these events, beginning with food entering the mouth?
A. I, II, and III
B. I, III, and II
C. II, III, and I
D. III, II, and I
2. What is the difference in function between triglycerides and phospholipids?
A. Triglycerides act as storage molecules, while phospholipids conduct transcription and translation.
B. Triglycerides carry out protein synthesis, while phospholipids deliver phosphates to nucleic acids.
C. Triglycerides metabolize pathogens, while phospholipids metabolize toxins formed by the pathogens.
D. Triglycerides act as a source of energy, while phospholipids create a barrier for the plasma membrane.
3. How are proteins essential for the survival of organisms?
A. they help remove body waste and regulate body temperature
B. they promote normal growth and perform repairs to the body
C. they convert sugars into energy that is used by the body
D. they provide insulation and protect organs in the body
4. Living organisms must be able to obtain materials and change the materials into new forms. What do these activities require?
A. the breakdown of energy-rich inorganic molecules
B. the synthesis of DNA
C. energy released from ATP
D. carbohydrates formed from receptor molecules
5. Fermentation and aerobic respiration break down glucose to make energy. Which statement correctly compares the two processes?
A. Aerobic respiration uses more glucose than fermentation uses.
B. Fermentation uses more oxygen than aerobic respiration uses.
C. Aerobic respiration produces less energy than fermentation produces.
D. Fermentation produces less energy than aerobic respiration produces.
6. Alexis Woods is a high school athlete who practices at the track for at least an hour after school. One day Alexis was given an extensive additional assignment by her coach to complete 50 rounds of sprints in the track. The next day Alexis experienced severe muscle aches. Her biology teacher explained the physiology of her muscle pain. According to the teacher, which statement best explains the physiology of the pain?
A. When the muscle cells do not receive enough oxygen to generate energy (ATP) through aerobic respiration, they undergo anaerobic respiration which results in the production of lactic acid. Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle cells and causes pain.
B. When the muscle cells do not receive enough oxygen to generate energy (ATP) through anaerobic respiration, they undergo aerobic respiration which results in the production of lactic acid. Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle cells and causes pain.
C. When the muscle cells do not receive enough oxygen to generate energy (ATP) through aerobic respiration, they undergo fatty acid metabolism which results in the production of amino acids. These amino acids accumulate in the muscle cells and cause pain.
D. When the muscle cells do not receive enough oxygen to generate energy (ATP) through aerobic respiration, they undergo anaerobic respiration which results in the production of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide accumulates in the muscle cells and causes pain.
Enzymes help living organisms metabolize food. What does an enzyme typically do?
A. transform a metabolic reaction into an oxidation reaction, providing the organism with oxygen.
B. slow down a metabolic reaction, which prevents the organism from using energy too quickly.
C. maintain a metabolic reaction, which causes the organism to lose energy as it takes in food.
D. speed up a metabolic reaction, which allows the organism to get energy quickly.
The data table above provides an overview of the major enzymes involved in chemical digestion. Based on the data table, which of the following statements is accurate?
A. Hamburgers can be chemically digested in a neutral environment. B. Baked potatoes require an acidic environment for chemical digestion.
C. Fried chicken wings require a basic environment for chemical digestion.
D. An olive oil salad dressing is chemically digested in an acidic environment.
Which of the following correctly identifies a function of carbohydrates in the body?
A. Carbohydrates provide energy.
B. Carbohydrates make up muscles.
C. Carbohydrates function as enzymes.
D. Carbohydrates conduct nervous impulses.
Which animal cell process would stop working without adequate oxygen?
B. aerobic respiration
C. anaerobic respiration
D. lactic acid production
What biomolecule is responsible for transmitting electrical pulses across the nervous system?
What reaction is responsible for combining monosaccharides to create disaccharides?
What biomolecular group are enzymes classified under?
What is the medical term for Toad Skin? What deficiency causes this?
Phrynoderma ; Vitamin A deficiency
Draw a monosaccharide
Draw amino acids
What molecular substituent determines the function of each amino acid? Give an example.
R-group; Aspartic acid has an additional carboxyl group (-COOH), so it will function as an acid.
The process that forms the myelin sheath surrounding neural axons.
What are the two types of fatty acids? How do they differ?
Saturated and Unsaturated; saturated fatty acids contain carbon single bonds while unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more carbon double bonds
What is the molecular ratio for a monosaccharide? What is the most common monosaccharide? Give its molecular formula.
1:2:1 ; Glucose; C6H12O6
List 3 characteristics of Enzymes
High specificity; speed up chemical reactions; affected by pH
The cell membrane is a great example of biomolecules working together. Explain this principle by identifying the types of biomolecules that work together in the membrane.
The membrane is a phospholipid bilayer that contains protein channels that allow things like glucose to be transported in and out of the cell. Globular proteins also have oligosaccharides attached to their extracellular face
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