Bio Midterm

Which is responsible for encoding the proteins found in a cell?
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A researcher hypothesizes that crocodile gender is determined by the incuation temperature of the egg. The hypothesis states that an average nest temperature of 32-33 degrees Celcius results in the birth of male crocodiles while cooler and higher incubation temperatures result in female crocodiles.

The researcher determines that an average nest incubation temperature of 32-33 degrees Celcius results in the birth of mal crocodiles, while higher and lower incubation temperatures result in female crocodiles. What is the most likely explanation for this phenomenon?
Little scientific evidence is necessary when formulating a theory. T/FfalseThe grouping or classification of species is termedtaxonomyBioTIPS encourages memorization of facts to understand science. T/FfalseDiscovery-based science and hypothesis testing are the two major scientific approaches that help us understand biology. T/FtrueYou wish to study how a protein binds to DNA, and which specific amino acids are involved. To do this you would create which type of model?structural modelThe phenomenon through which populations of organisms change over several generations is termedbiological evolutionA plant will begin flowering in response to changes in length of daylight, temperature, and light quality. This is an example of which unifying principle of life?Living organisms interact with their environment.Boa constrictors on an island are an example of a(n)population.An explanation for a biological process that is substantiated by a large body of evidence is called atheoryA variety of finch species within the Hawaiian Islands have acquired different types of beaks needed for utilizing specific food resources. What is the likely process by which these different species of finces came about?vertical descent with mutaionAll organisms in the Kingdom _____ can perform photosynthesis.plantaeWhen considering nomenclature for scientific names, what is the difference between the two primates, Homo sapiens and Homo erectus?They are animals of a different species.When grouping organisms, which classification is most general for a particular type of organism?KingdomWhich level of organization is common to all life forms?cellWhat type of bonding is likely to occur between two water molecules or strands of DNA?hydrogenErnest Rutherford's key experiment on alpha particle bombardment of gold foil was important to the development ofthe modern model for atomic structureCarbon has 4 electrons and hydrogen has 1 electron in its outermost electron shell. A carbon atom can form covalent bonds with how many hydrogen atoms?4Carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativities and combine together to form hydrocarbon molecules. What type of bonds for between these atoms?nonpolar covalentOne gram of hydrogen, which has an atomic mass of 1, would have fewer atoms than 1 gram of carbon that has an atomic mass of 12. T/FfalseSulfur 35 is an isotope of Sulfur 32. These elements differ in their number of neutrons. T/FtrueIn water, MgCl2 dissociates into Mg2+ and Cl-. Based on ths information what type of bond is involved in the formation of MgCl2?ionicUsing the periodic table as your tool, identify the atomic characteristic that would most quickly and efficiently identify any single element.number of protons and electronsHelium is an inert gas that rarely reacts with other elements because it has the maximum number of valence electrons in its outer shell. T/FtrueMolecules are generally rigid structures and rarely change shape. T/FFalseIf a scientist were to shoot protons through an atom as Rutherford did with gold foil, he or she would likely find thatmost of the protons passed straight through the atomThe electronegativity of an atom is a measure of its ability to attract electrons to its outer shell from another atom. T/FfalseThe single atom you would choose to remove from living organisms in order to remove the highest percentage of atoms would be.hydrogenMost enzymes or bioactive molecules work effectively within a broad range of pH. T/FFalseIf lithium has an atomic number of 3 then it will have one valence electron. T/Ftrue1 mole = 1000 millimoles; 1 millimole = 1000 micromoles. If a solution contains 38231 micromiles, what is that amount in mmol?38.231 mmolThe smallest functional units of matter that cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical or physical means areatomsThe structural difference between saturated and unsaturated fats causes what type of change at room temperature?Linear structure of a fatty acid causes solid formation at room temperature.Multiple functional groups are able to attach to macromolecules. What is the most useful characteristic that enables the attachment of multiple functional groups?four carbon covalent bondsThe key structural difference between DNA and RNA isAs their names indicate, DNA contains deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose. Thus, DNA contains a different sugar than RNA.The four nucleotide bases found in DNA are identical to those in RNA. T/FFalseThe largest molecule of the following is glucose a disaccharide sucrose a polysaccharidepolysaccharideSubunits sometimes build up to form a macromolecule. Which molecule is least likely to be a subunit of a macromolecule?steroidsIf you were asked to build a model of a nucleotide, what structures would you need to represent in the model?phosphate group, five carbon sugar, baseThe major class of macromolecules that stores energy and makes up the major component of plasma membranes arelipidsWhen placed in an aqueous solution, amphipathic molecules will orient themselves withhydrophobic hydrocarbon chains in the middle and hydrophilic head groups facing the waterThe sequence of amino acids in a protein is its _____ structure.primaryTwo molecules with identical molecular formulas but different structures are calledisomersMacromolecules such as lipids and carbohydrates are produced from monomers through condensation reactions. T/FtrueThe feature of carbon important for producing a diversity of, organic molecules iscarbon can form both polar and nonpolar covalent bonds with various elementsCarbohydrate assemby occurs bya dehydration reaction between monosaccharides that form polysaccharides and disaccharidesAll amino acids within a protein are either polar charged or polar uncharged. T/FfalseAll organic molecules containhydrogen and carbonA protein's _____ structure contains helixes and sheets that result from hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of the polypeptide chain.secondaryIdentify the nonlipid molecule. cholesterol steroids phospholipids glycogen triglyceridesglycogenThe substance most rich in unsaturated fats isolive oilA polyunsaturated fat contains fatty acids with multiple double-bonded carbons. T/FtrueThe functional group that forms covalent bonds between R groups within a polypeptide and that stabilizes tertiary structure is_SHCreate a list of macromolecules that make up and maintain living organisms. Choose all that apply. carbohydrates lipids amino acids proteins nucleic acids vitaminscarbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acidsBecause carbon and hydrogen share similar electronegativities, they will form nonpolar covalent bonds with each other. T/FtrueStarch is used to store energy and cellulose is a structural polysaccharide. The key differences that explain these functions arealpha 1-4 and alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkage in starch creates branching, and beta 1-4 in cellulose creates unbranched structures.Which of the following correctly describes bases that pair with each other in the DNA double helix?cytosine bonds with guanineThe sole function of carbohydrates is to serve as energy stores. T/FtrueThe macormolecule composed of amino acids is aproteinThe primary structure of a protein ultimately determines its 3D structure. T/FtrueA dehydration reactionis used to form polymersIf a specimen contains 30 % adenine in its DNA, how much cytosine will it contain?20 %Sickle cell anemia is a condition in which red blood cells exhibit a characteristic "sickle" shape. This arises from a mutation or change in one of the amino acids found in hemoglobin. A single amino acid mutation would directly affect a protein's _____ structure.primaryFuels such as gasoline are nonpolar and have high potential energy because they are largely composed ofhydrocarbonsThe functional group that characterizes an alcohol is_OHFats and fatty acidsare insoluble in water.Lipids and carbohydrates can both be used by animals to store energy. T/FtrueFriedrich Wohler refuted the scientific concept of vitalism during the early 1800's by proving that organic molecules could be synthesized outside a living organism. T/FtrueThe portion of an amino acid that makes the amino acid unique among the 20 different amino acids isthe side chain or r-groupIf sucrose is composed of both glucose and fructose, then sucrose must be a monosaccharide. T/FFalseA disaccharide, such as maltose, consists of two molecules of glucose linked by what type of bond?GlycosidicThe molecule that is polar and acts like a base isR-NH2A phospholipid has _____ fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a fat has _____.2;3The unique characterisics of ribosomes include: A. composition of two subunits B. ribosomal proteins being produced in the cytosol. C. an RNA composition D. the cytosol site where all ribosomal components are produced E. ribosomes being made of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.A, B, CThe tool(s) that enables researchers to study the structure and function of cells are A. tunneling assays B. magnifying glasses C. TEM D. microarrays E. microscopesEThe cell wall is a common feature toprokaryotic and plant cellsThe flagellum is composed of a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules called the axoneme. T/FTrueThe cell is the basic structural/functional unit common to all living organisms. T/FtrueA patient has a variety of cellular problems, including proteins in the endomembrane system going to the wrong locations, and no synthesis of estrogen or testosterone. Identify the organelle-symptom pair that is defective.A problem in the rough ER is responsible for the protein location problem, and a problem in the smooth ER is responsible for the estrogen and testosterone problem.In order to visualize the fine structure of viruses and cytoskeletal filaments at 10-25 nanometers in diameter the type of microscopy that would be most effective istransmission electron microscopy or TEMAll plant cells contain centrioles. T/FFalseThe specialized structure that stores pigments, water, inorganic ions and maintains turgor pressure is thevacuoleWhich type of cell would have the hardest time exporting waste?large and roundIn order to gain the highest resolution at a cell the best type of microscopy isscanning electron microscopyThe general structural and functional differences between a nerve and smooth muscle cell within an individual are a result ofthe proteome and the relative amounts of certain proteins that differ between muscle and nerve cellsThe endosymbiosis theory best describes the origins of peroxisomes in eukaryotes. T/FfalseYou have decided to repeat Palade's experiments on the endomembrane system. You think you've done everything correctly, but when you observe your final sample under the microscope, you find that the entire endomembrane system contains tiny black dots. When you look at later timepoints, you see the same thing. What part of the experiment did you forget?You forgot to add nonradioactive amino acids.In animal cells, microtubules grow fromcentrosomes containing centriolesDue to the lack of an enzyme to break down lipids, excess accumulation of lipids in the brain leads to a human disease called Tay-Sachs syndrome. The organelle(s) most likely to lack th proper enzyme needed for lipid breakdown is/arelysosomesFluorescence microscopy enables researchers to label and visualize a particular type of cellular protein or organelle. T/FtrueIn eukaryotes, most proteins contain short stretches of amino acid sequences called sorting signals that direct the protein to the correct cellular location. T/FtrueThe first step in cotranslational sorting occurs when the peptide is directed to the endoplasmic reticulum. T/FtrueYou have designed a drug able to transform skin cells into cells that secrete insulin. What accumulative aspect of the cell will the drug affect?the proteomeMany different structures make up a cell and have unique functions. Each cell structure is associated with a critical function in the cell. These pairings include: A. nucleus; DNA replication B. Golgi apparatus; modification, processing, and sorting of macromolecules C. lysosomes; protein synthesis D. cell membrane; barrier between the cell and the external environment E. microfilaments; cytoskeletonA,B,D,EThe route that most accurately describes secretory protein movement through the endomembrane system would berough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, golgi apparatus, vesicles, plasma membraneMaterials move in and out of the nucleus via endocytosis and exocytosis. T/FfalseThe two scientists credited with the formulation of the cell theory (cell doctrine) from the 1800's areSchleiden and SchwannThe nucleus is to eukaryotes as the ______ is to prokaryotes.nucleoidThe formation of proteins has been altered in a patients body by high temperature leading to the protein beng broken dwn immediately after synthesis. The best description of this isproteins are in a catabolic processAfter a night of drinking too much alcohol, a person will rely on which organelle to help detoxify and recover?smooth endoplasmic reticulumWhat organelle and function pair best explains their ability to divide?mitochondria and chloroplasts, due to their association with endosymbiosis theoryThe cytoskeletal structure(s) that are composed of actin and regulate shape, cell movement, and mscle contraction includemicrofilamentsThe signal recognition particle functions inrecognizing an ER signal sequence and binding to an SRP receptor in the ER.The function of eurkaryote's membranes include A. cell signaling B. barriers separating extracellular and intracellular environments C. cell-to-cell adhesion D. ATP synthesis E. unselective transportationA,B,CTransmission and scanning electron microscopy differ becausetransmission electron microscopy shows 2D ultrastructure, while the scanning electron microscopy shows 3D structureTo observe the 3D structure of a cell, the best type of micorscopy would bescanning electron microscopyThe structure that easily distinguishes a plan cell from an animal cellchloroplastsEukaryotes such as animal and plants cells differ from prokaryotes in that prokaryoteslasck internal compartmentalizaitonColorless plastids that store starch in the roots of plants areAmyloplastsCell theory or cell doctrine is based on some basic principles. Choose the description that best addresses these principles. A. All life is composed of two or ore cells, the smallest unit of life are cells, and cell division from pre-existing cells is the only way cells continue to exist. B. New cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division. C. Cells are the smallest unit of living organisms, and new cells form from pre-existing cells by cell division. D. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest units of life, and new cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division.DThe best description of the organelle peroxisomes include: A. they have a double membrane around them. B. they assist with detoxifying the cell C. they produce an enzyme that stops the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and free radicals. D. their structure includes their own DNAB,CThe organelle that best enables an athlete's tissues to be metabolically active aremitochondriaPlasma membranes are a feature ofall cellsThe organelle responsible for the biosynthesis of proteins that are destined for secretion by the cell is theERCyanide binds and impairs one of the molecules involved in the synthesis of ATP. The target organelle for cyanide must bemitochondriaThe structure(s) that easily distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell is/arechloroplasts and cell wallLysosomes digest unneeded intracellular debris through the process ofautophagyWhich of the following organelles are most likely to be able to divide and reproduce much like a cell does?both mitochondria and chloroplastsMyosin is a motor protein that walks along intermediate filaments. T/FtrueFtsZ. MreB. and CreS proteins regulate the shape and structure of bacterial prokaryote cells. These proteins are homologous to the ______ eukaryotes.cytoskeletonThe genome has more on the function of cells in different organs than does the proteome. T/FfalseSodium concentrations are higher outside and glucose concentrations are higher inside the cell. Using the same membrane protein for Na+ and glucose transport, what is it called when a Na+ electrochemical gradient is used to drive glucose transport into the cell against its concentration gradient?secondary active transportA researcher s studying eukaryotic cells that shows an abnormal pattern of surface glycosylation. The researcher determines that these cells have normal levels of glycolipids and integral membrane proteins with O-linked glycosylation. The researcher discovers that there are no N-linked glycosylated proteins on the cell surface and unusually high levels of glycosylated in the ER membrane. What is a reasonable hypothesis to explain this observation?the cell has a defective oligosaccharide transferaseWhich molecule would you predict moves through a lipid bilayer most rapidly without the help of a transport protein?C4H10What would be an expected feature or a plasma membrane that had no integral membrane proteins?the membrane would be unable to transport sodium ionsPlasma membrane phospholipids are labeled with a fluorescent tag and then the phospholipids in one area are bleached with a laser beam to eliminate the fluorescent signal. What would one observe after the cell is incubated for a few minutes?The bleached molecules would diffuse laterally through the membrane and intermix with unbleached molecules.Placing celery sticks in fresh water will make them more turgid and harder. This is becausethe celery is hypertonic to fresh water.Cellular embranes arefluidA protein is tightly associated with the plasma membrane and it can be isolated by treating the membrane with a strong detergent. What type of membrane protein is this?either an integral or a peripheral membrane proteinPlant cell membranes contain cholesterol. T/FFalseAnimal cells are permeable to water and urea but NOT to sucrose. Initially, the inside of a cell contains 1 M sucrose and 1 M urea and the outside 2 M sucrose and 1 M urea. After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?The molarity of sucrose would be similar inside and outside the cell and water would move out of the cell causing the cell to shrivel.Glycosylated proteins and lipids within the plasma membrane are important forcell recognition and protectionWhat process(es) are required for phospholipids to flip-flop across the lipid bilayer?The process requires energy and the flippase enzymeCellular membranes are mosaic andfluidWhich membrane component is important for allowing large, charged molecules to pass through the membrane?transmembrane proteinsWhat are the two major components of cell membranes?phospholipids and proteinsHow does a macrophage (immune cell) consume a bacteria?phagocytosisHow might a plant cell compensate for the excessive membrane fluidity that occurs during prolonged exposures to elevated temperature?alter the lipid composition to have longer phospholipid tails and fewer double bondsThe movement of sucrose and H+ into the cell by the same membrane protein reflects the actions of what type of transporter?symporterThe process that most involves the selective uptake of a specific cargo molecule into the cell through receptor binding and aggregation isreceptor-mediated endocytosisWater diffuses through certain organs such as the kidneys and bladder much faster than would occur by passive diffusion through a lipid bilayer alone. What accounts for this more rapid rate of water transport in these organs?presence of aquaporin channels for facilitated diffusion of waterWhat feature of the plasma membrane is primarily responsible for the selective uptake and export of ions and molecules from the cell?the phospholipid bilayer has hydrophobic interiorIon gradients across the membrane drive numerous cellular functions. T/FtrueScientists unearth a wooly mammoth from the Siberian Ice Sheath and discover that a eukaryotic "amoeba"-like cel is still alive. Which component of the cell membrane might contribute to maintaining the fluidity of plasma membranes under freezing conditons?high levels of unsaturated phospholipid tails within the lipid bilayerA scientist produces an artificial membrane from phospholipids and notices that oxygen, but not glucose, readily moves through the membrane. What might account for the inability of glucose to move through the artifical membrane?the artificial membrane lacked a protein needed for glucose transportThe Na+/K+ -ATPase pump is a ligand-gated ion channel. T/FFalseA dysfunctional cell lacks a signal peptidase and is unable to cleave the ER signal sequence from proteins translated in the ER. What will be the effect on the cell's proteins?There will be a common signal sequence at the N-terminus of all integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane.What process best characterizes Ca2+ movement from the cytosol (low Ca2+ concentration) into the endoplasmic reticulum (high Ca2+ concentration)?Calcium movement involves active transportA researcher is studying the integral membrane protein "mysteriase" and chooses to perform an experiment similar to that performed by Frye and Edidin. The researcher fuses a mouse cell expressing mysteriase with a human cell. The fused cell is incubated at 37 degrees Celsius prior to being cooled to 0 degrees Celsius and labeled with a fluorescent antibody against mysteriase. When observed with a fluorescent antibody against mysteriase. When observed with a fluorescent microscope, mysteriase is observed to remain on one side of the fused cell. What is the most likely explanation for this surprising observation?Mysteriase is bound to the cytoskeletal filament.Osmosis describes the movement of water from an area of high to low solute concentration. T/FTrueImagine that a cell can be treated with a drug that prevents proteins from undergoing large conformational changes. Which transport proteins would be unaffected by this drug treatment?aquaporin_____ bind two or more ions or molecules and transport them in opposite directions across a membrane.AntiportersIn order to study a cell at lower temperatures, a researcher must artificially increase its membrane fluidity. What would be a reasonable strategy for increasing plasma membrane fluidity at low temperatures?decrease the length of the phospholipid fatty acyl tailIf a cell suddenly loses the ability to activate fatty acids by the attachment of a CoA molecule, what will be the most significant impact on the cell membrane?phospholipids will no longer be synthesized in the ERThe release of the protein insulin form pancreatic cells occurs byexocytosisPassive diffusionis a spontaneous processThe plasma membrane Na+/K+ -ATPase pumpis used to genereate sodiu and potassium gradients across the membrane.Na+ ion concentrations are higher outside the cell than inside the cell. What type of transport system is required to move Na+ ions in and out of the cell?Na+ moves into the cell by facilitated diffusion and out of the cell by active transport.What is the major lipid found in membranes?phospholipidsThe pressure required to stop water from moving across the membrane by osmosis is calledosmotic pressureWhich molecule passes through a lipid bilayer most readily?carbon dioxideAnimal cells are permeable to water and urea but NOT to sucrose. The inside of a cell contains 1 M sucrose and 1 M urea and the outside 1 M sucrose and 2 M urea. The solution inside with respect to outside the cell ishypotonicThe membrane component(s) primarily responsible for the structure and function of plasma membranes is/arephospholipidsMovement of molecules down their concentration gradient can drive the movement of a different molecule against its concentration gradient. T/FtrueTwo "magic" solutions are sold by a research supply company. "Magic Solution A" promises to extract all proteins, including integral membrane proteins, from the plasma membrane. "Magic Solution B" promises to simply extract all peripherally associated membrane proteins. What is the likely composition of "Magic Solution A" and "Magic Solution B"?"Solution A" is a membrane solubilizing deterent, "Solution B" is a high salt buffer that disrupts hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions.What would your predict about the following reaction? Pi + ADP yields ATPIt has a change in free energy that is greater than 0.A certain biochemical reaction must be coupled to the hydrolysis of at least two ATP molecules (DeltaG = -14.6 kCal) in order to occur. What is a possible DeltaG for this biochemicla reaction?DeltaG = +8 kCalAutophagy is an important process that removes worn-out organelles, recycles components, then releases them into the cytosol. T/FTrueThe process of breaking glycogen down to glucose is an example ofcatabolism.______ will accumulate if a-cell is treated with a proteasome inhiitor.Unfolded proteins with ubiquitin attachedThe reaction phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP yieldspyruvate + ATP (DeltaG=-7.5 kcal/mole)is an exergonic reactionA reaction with a DeltaG > 0 is endergonic and requires a net input of energy to proceed. T/FTrueThe charge on amino acids in the active site of an enzyme would be affected bypH.A bowl of sugar water is very stable. However, cells can rapidly break down sugar into carbon dioxide and water. What is the best explanation for this observation?Enzymes in the cell catalyze the breakdown of glucose.For a reaction to be spontaneous it must show a net decrease in both energy and entropy. T/FFalseIf one were to double the amount of enzyme in a reaction with an initial DeltaG of -5 kcal/mole, what would the DeltaG be?-5 kcal/moleAltering the 3D structure of an enzyme mightprevent the substrate from binding the enzyme's active siteTemperature, pH, and ionic concentrations each play an important role in the proper functioning of enzymes. T/FTrueMetabolism refers to only those reactions that release energy. T/FFalseThe primary complexes for protein synthesis and degradation in eukaryotes are _____ and _____, respectively.ribosomes; proteasomesA logical consequence of the second law of thermodynamics could be stated,every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.A chemical reaction that has a positive DeltaG is correctly described asendergonicEnzymes are consumed in chemical reactions and must therefore be replenished. T/FfalseProtein degradation in eukaryotes is performed byproteasomeIn a catabolic reaction, electrons from food areremoved by oxidation and stored in NADH.How can a living cell increase the rate of a chemical reaction?by using a catalystCatabolic and anabolic reactions in living cells involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another in reduction-oxidation reactions. T/FtrueIn the reaction A- +B yields A + B-,molecule A is oxidized and molecule B is reducedAfter ATP donates a phosphate group in a couple reaction, it becomes ADP. The ADP can be converted back to ATP in a(an) _____ reaction.endergonicThe amount of available energy that can be used to do work is calledfree energyIn the citric acid cycle, malate is oxidized to formoxloacetateDuring the cleavage stage of glycolysis, fructose-1, 6 biophosphate is broken down intotwo molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphateIn the citric acid cycle, some intermediates are used in other metabolic reactions. Which of the following adaptations would need to be made by a cell in response to this?Some oxaloacetate would need to be produced through an alternative pathway to combine with acetyl CoA.The aerobic breakdown of glucose yields 34 to 38 ATP, while anaerobic breakdown of glucose yields 20 ATP. T/FfalseWhich of the following processes will occur in the presence or absence of oxygen?glycolysisWhen heart muscles cells are deprived of oxygen, the heart still pumps for some time. What must the heart cells be able to do?derive sufficient energy from fermentationIn prokaryotic cells, the electron transport system occurs in the mitochondria. T/FFalseWhich of the following do yeast produce during fermentation?ethanolIn the reaction: pyruvate + CoA + NAD yields acetyl CoA + CO2 + NADH.Pyruvate is oxidized and NAD+ is reduced.The ATP made during glycolysis is generated bysubstrate-level phosphorylationThe reaction: Pyruvate + CoA + NAD yields acetyl CoA + CO2 + NADH, is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase. If an inhibitor of this enzyme was added to cells, then _____ levels in the cytoplasm would increase.pyruvateBacteria that produce nitrite (NO2-) during anaerobic respiration would use _____ as their final electron acceptor.NO3-The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is irreversible. Predict what would happen to fatty acids as a result of this.Fatty acids cannot be converted into carbohydrates.Fermentation is a more efficient form of energy production than aerobic respiration. T/FFalseGlycolysis involves 10 enzyme-catalyzed steps, that can be grouped into three phases: energy investment phase, cleavage phase, and the energy liberation phase. T/FTrueDuring the energy investment phase of glycolysis, glucose has a decrease in free energy. T/FfalseWhich of the following are produced during the citric acid cycle?ATP, NADH, and FADH2The equation, C6H12O6 + 6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6H2O (ATP + Heat), describes which of the following processes?cell respirationWhen a molecue of NAD+ gains a hydrogen atom, the molecule becomes reduced. T/FTrueThe electron transport chain consists of a series of redox reactions in which electrons are transferred to oxygen as the final electron acceptor. T/FtrueIn the citric acd cycle, the acetyl group is removed from acetyl CoA and attached to oxaloacetate to formcitrate