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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (90)
This is the period when our ancestors told stories about the creation of human beings and the world, natural phenomena, and deities and spirits.
A transmission of literary works where stories were passed down by word of mouth is called _________.
From which Javanese script was the writing system baybayin derived?
Which of the following is not a convention of oral literature?
Which of the following statements is not true about the precolonial literature of the Philippines?
Precolonial literature includes folktales, mythology, and epics
Rico is going to research the oldest fables that originated from his town. Which keywords in their local library database or catalog should he use so he could search for the texts he needs faster?
Complete the analogy:
Hieroglyphics is to Egypt as _________ is to Philippines.
Cate was trying to modify a baybayin symbol to present different vowel sounds. She used variations of symbols from short lines, dots, and even arrowheads. What are these symbols for modification called?
Annabel found a baybayin bookmark from a book she borrowed from the library. She wanted to decipher the word and searched for a baybayin chart online. With it, she was able to decipher the meaning.
You were tasked to report about the ancient writing form of baybayin. Which of the following would not be a good strategy to include in your report?
include the history of ancient writing forms such as hieroglyphs and sanskrit
relating to a community
beings exalted or revered as supremely good or
a long narrative poem in elevated style recounting the
deeds of a legendary or historical hero
an often unfair or untrue belief that many people have
about all people or things with a particular
the act or process by which something is spread or
passed from one person or thing to another
This is the period when our ancestors told stories about the creation of human beings and
the world, natural phenomena, and deities and spirits.
In this period, the characters in stories evolved. Ordinary mortals and cultural heroes
became the chief subject matter in this period.
are traditional stories that had humans, animals, and even plants as
writing system used by Filipinos during the precolonial period
the precolonial period were passed down by word of
the precolonial period were passed down by word of
stories that make use of gods, goddesses, and other fantastical creatures as
These stories are often about famous persons or events. These
may tell of an encounter with marvelous creatures, which the folks still believe in fairies,
ghosts, water spirits, the devil, and the like.
are prose narratives usually told to amuse or entertain. These are also
instructional in nature, dealing with events set in an indefinite time and space.
a long narrative poem that describes the adventures of a hero, warrior, god, or
This is considered the oldest and longest among the epics of Panay.
Somehow similar to "Hinilawod," this epic is about three brothers: Baltog, Bantiong,
and Handiong. This epic originated from the Bicol region.
This epic tells about the lives of native Ifugao heroes, the most notable of which is
Aliguyon of the village Gonhandan.
This epic is about the sentimental and romantic adventures of noble Maranao warriors;
This epic tells the story of Lam-Ang, who exhibits extraordinary abilities even in his
early years. This epic originated from the Ilocos region.
"Biag ni Lam-Ang"
comes from the Greek word bios, which means "life,"
and graphia, which means "writing"; a detailed account
or narrative of a person's life written by someone else
a narrative of a person's life written by himself or
the set of mutually supportive beliefs that define a person's or society's outlook on life or reality
intimately autobiographical; characterized by openness
ending a relationship with someone suddenly or
refers to different schools of thought and bodies of
ideas that can be used as a tool in understanding a
relating to, or involving a combination of cultural and
the set or system of social structures, institutions,
norms, customs that conserve, maintain, or enforce
patterns of relations and behavior
a systematic body of concepts or beliefs about life or
a cup used to hold wine
● Reading using the sociocultural context helps you understand the social, economic,
political, and cultural forces affecting the work that you are reading.
● Analyzing the sociocultural context of the text makes you examine the role of the
audience (readers) in shaping literature.
Reasons to Read Literature through Its Sociocultural Context
● What is the relationship between the characters or the speakers in the text and
● Does the text explicitly address issues of gender, race, or class? How does the text
resolve these issues?
● Who has the power? Who does not? What is the reason for this setup?
● How does this story reflect the nation? What does this say about the country and its
● Who has the economic or social power? Is there oppression or class struggle? How
do the characters overcome this? Does money or finances play a significant role in
● What is the prevailing social order? Does the story or poem accept or challenge it?
Questions when Reading using a Sociocultural Context
literature shows class
struggle and materialism.
examines the role of the women in
is concerned with the experiences of
the LGBTQIA+ community.
is a perspective
dealing with the history that influenced the writing of
is a literary perspective that looks into the
changes in society, culture, and attitudes in previous colonies
after the colonial period.
is another perspective in the sociocultural
relating to language or the study of the
the study of how linguistic elements form phrases,
clauses, or sentences
a literary theory that links a text to a larger structure
a school of literary theory focused on structure,
through which a text is examined without regard for
a literary theory that links a text to a larger structure
structures in a text that may have varied
● Analyze the diction or choice of words in the text.
● Examine the texts' syntax or use of sentences, clauses, phrases, line cuts, etc.
● Observe the use of figurative language.
● Analyze the mood and tone of the text.
● Observe the text's overall structure.
● Analyze the content of the text.
Strategies in Reading through the Linguistic Context
● What are the striking words in the text? What words are unfamiliar to you? Which
words attract your attention? What words are dramatic?
● What nouns are the most prominent? Are these concrete or abstract nouns? What
about verbs? Does the author use common words or lofty diction? Are the words
short or long? Is there any word that has two or more meanings?
● Are the sentences in the usual order of subject-predicate? What are the dependent
clauses? What are the independent clauses? If you restructure a sentence or a
phrase, would it make a difference? Is the voice active or passive? Is there a rhythm
in the sentence structure in relation to the length of the sentences or lines?
● What literary devices are used? Are there images? Do those images stand for
anything aside from their literal meaning?
● What is the tone? Is the speaker happy about the subject? Is the tone negative or
● What is the structure of the text? Is it a narrative? Is it linear or nonlinear? What is the
point of view of the text? Is it a poem? What type of poem is it?
● Does the language help in delivering and understanding its content? Is there a
theme? What is it saying about its subject matter? How do the literary elements
contribute to the effectiveness of the text?
● What is the text saying about the world in general?
Questions when Reading through the Linguistic Context
● Even if literature uses language, it does not mean that the standard language
conventions are followed. Some writers may not follow grammatical rules, and
this kind of deviation may be used in your analysis. You may ask, "Why is the text not
following standard grammar?" and other similar questions.
● The characteristics of the language in which the text was written may help in
analyzing the text. You may also ask, "Why is the text written in this language?", "Is
this considered a weak language or a strong language?", and other similar questions.
● You may consult literary approaches that focus on language. Structuralism,
poststructuralism, and formalism have linguistic aspects. These approaches may
guide you as you read through the linguistic context.
Literary Approaches in Reading through the Linguistic Context
relays the texts being examined to a larger
the reaction to structuralism.
the most compact form of literature. The
ideas, feelings, rhythm, and sound are packed into
carefully chosen words, working to convey
meaning to the readers.
has a tone (e.g.,
ecstatic, melancholic, satiric), follows a form, and
uses figurative language
began as oral traditions.
These are poems that are supposedly sung with musical accompaniment.
These are poems that are usually performed onstage, and they can be sung or spoken.
a dramatic character who is the speaker in the poem.
always the poet.
Poetry is written in lines, and oftentimes the lines are divided into groups called
is the use of language that appeals to the five senses: visual (sight), auditory
(hearing), gustatory (taste), tactile (touch), and olfactory (sense).
include rhyme, rhythm, and other literary devices that pertain to
(using words that imitate the sound of what they refer
(repetition of initial sounds)
(repetition of vowel
sounds within neighboring words)
It is the repetition of similar or identical sounds at the end of poetic lines.
1 unstressed syllable followed by 1 stressed syllable
1 stressed syllable followed by 1 unstressed syllable
2 unstressed syllables followed by 1 stressed syllable
on the road iterrupt (in-ter-rupt)
1 stressed syllable followed by 2 unstressed syllable
all syllables have equal stress
Poets use words or phrases that are put together to help readers picture ordinary things
in new ways.
the central idea of a poem. It is usually stated as a philosophical truth in life.
any writing that does not have a metrical structure and rhythmical pattern like
Prose is divided into two:
a story that is made up or invented by an author. This means that the events
in the story are not real;
be read in one sitting and should strive
for unity and effect According to Edgar Allan Poe
longer and more complex than a short story.
plot (and conflict),
characters, setting, point of view, and theme
five basic elements of fiction
basic and most common plot structure of a story
follows a linear format: beginning, middle, and end.
types of plot
It features distinct episodes
that are related to one
another but that also can be
read individually, almost as
stories by themselves.
contains repetition of
phrases, sentences, or events
with one new aspect added
with each repetition.
a story in which another
story or other multiple stories
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