Respiratory System

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What composes the upper respiratory tract?
-The external nose
-Nasal cavity
-Pharynx
What composes the lower respiratory tract?
-Larynx
-Trachea
-Bronchi
-Lungs
What is the external nose comprised of?
-External nose (Cartilage and bones)
-Nasal Cavity
-Covered in skin
What are the boundaries of the nasal cavity?
-Anteriorly opening of the nostril
-Posteriorly Choanae (opening of nasopharynx)
-Lateral Maxilla
-Superior bones of orbit
-Inferior Hard Palate
What does the nasal cavity do?
It warms and filters air
What are the 3 bony ridges found on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity with spaces known as meatuses beneath them?
Concha
What does the auditory tube do?
-Equalizes pressure
-Located between middle air and nasopharynx
-Lateral aspect of the nasopharynx
What are the pharyngeal tonsils?
-Aid with infections
-Located in the posterior aspect of the nasopharynx
What is the component of the upper respiratory tract that contains an opening for both digestive and respiratory system?
Pharynx
What are the three parts of the pharynx?
-Nasopharynx
-Oropharynx
-Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx
-Posterior to the nasal cavity
-Air
Oropharynx
-Posterior to the oral cavity
-Food fluids and air
Laryngopharynx
-Posterior to the larynx
-Food fluids and air
What are the boundaries of the oropharynx?
-Superior Uvula prevents food from getting into the nasopharynx
-Inferior epiglottis prevents food from getting into the larynx
What is the Larynx?
-Voice box where sound is produce
-Anterior part of the throat from the base of the tongue to the trachea
-Serves as a passageway for air from the pharynx to the trachea
To what two landmarks is the larynx attached?
-Superiorly hyoid bone
-Inferiorly trachea
The larynx is composed of how many cartilages?
9
What are the cartilages on the anterior part of the larynx?
3 Unpaired
-Thyroid cartilage (Largest)
-Cricoid cartilage (Most inferior)
-Epiglottis cartilage
What attaches the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone?
Thyrohyoid membrane
What attaches the cricoid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage?
Cricothyroid membrane
What is another name for the thyroid cartilage?
Adams Apple
Thyroid Cartilage
Opens posteriorly
Cricoid Cartilage
Closed all around
What are the cartilages on the posterior part of the larynx?
3 Paired
-Cuneiform
-Corniculate
-Arytenoid
What does the cuneiform cartilage sit on?
Aryepiglottic membrane that is the mucous membrane between the Arytenoid cartilage and Epiglottis
What does the paired corniculate cartilage sit on?
Arytenoid cartilage
What does the paired arytenoid cartilage sit on?
Cricoid cartilage
What are the two pairs of the vocal cords?
-Vestibular fold Superiorly
-Vocal fold Inferiorly
What is the vestibular fold?
-False cord
-Protective mechanism for the vocal fold
-Superior to the vocal fold extending from the arytenoid cartilage to the posterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage
What is the vocal fold?
-Vibrates
-Responsible for sounds production
-Inferior to the vestibular fold extending from the arytenoid cartilage to the posterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage
What is the trachea composed of?
-15 to 20 C shaped rings of cartilage anteriorly
-Smooth muscle posteriorly
-Opening posteriorly to accommodate the esophagus
Where does the bifurcation of the trachea occur at?
T4-T5 also where the sternal angle, aortic arch and rib 2 are located
Why does the Right Bronchus (Main or primary to right lung) have direct continuation?
Located vertically, shorter and wider than the left bronchus which makes foreign objects in the trachea continue into the right bronchus & lung
Where is the site of emergency cricothyrotomy to establish airway?
Cricothyroid membrane
Where is the site of elective tracheostomy established for airway?
Trachea
The right and left bronchi are also known as?
Main or primary bronchi that conduct air to and from the lungs
The secondary bronchi is also known as?
Lobar bronchi and conduct air to and from the lobes
The tertiary bronchi also known as?
Segmental bronchi and conducts air to and from segments of the lobes
What is the parietal pleura?
The layer close to the thoracic wall
What is the visceral pleura?
The layer close to the lungs
What is the pleural cavity?
Cavity filled with fluid which allow friction free expansion and contraction of the lungs
What cavity do the lungs reside in?
Thoracic Cavity
Where does the apex of the lungs point?
Superiorly
Where does the base of the lungs reside?
On the Diaphragm
How many lobes does the right lung have?
3
-Superior
-Middle
-Inferior
How many lobes does the left lung have?
2
-Superior
-Inferior
What are the fissures of the right lung?
-Horizontal fissure separates the superior lobe middle and inferior lobe
-Oblique fissure separates the superior lobe middle and the inferior lobe
What are the fissures of the left lung?
-Oblique fissure separates the superior lobe from the inferior lobe
What is the tongue-like flap on the superior lobe of the left lung that is considered a rudimentary middle lobe?
Lingula
-The nonfunctional "3rd" lobe
What is the hilus?
-Area that the bronchi and pulmonary vessels enter and exit the lungs
-Form the root of the lung
-Where structures that enter and leave the lobes are located
-The bronchus is found in the hilum
The pulmonary arteries conduct?
Deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
The pulmonary veins conduct?
Oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
In the right lung the pulmonary artery is located where?
Anterior to the bronchus
In the left lung the pulmonary artery is located where?
Superior to the bronchus
What does the diaphragm separate?
-Thoracic cavity
-Abdominal cavity
What does the contraction of the diaphragm do? And Relaxation?
-Contraction increases vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity producing inspiration of air into the lungs
-Flattens as it contracts
-Domed shape as it relaxes
What is the most important muscle for inspiration? Why?
-Diaphragm (Domed Shape)
-Responsible for 2/3 of inspiration
-Flattens as it contracts increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity
What are the three openings of the diaphragm?
-Inferior vena cana
-Esophagus
-Aorta
In the diaphragm where is the opening for the inferior vena cava?
Caval opening at T8
In the diaphragm where is the opening for the esophagus?
Esophageal hiatus at T10
In the diaphragm where is the opening for the aorta?
Aortic opening at T12
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