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IB Physics Option H Relativity
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Gravity
Terms in this set (18)
Frames of Reference
a coordinate system covered in clocks that an observer uses to measure the time and position of an event.
inertial frame of reference
a coordinate system which is not accelerating, in which Newton's laws are valid
Michelson-Morley Experiment
Light hit the glass plate some is reflected and some is refracted. Both rays are reflected back and will interfere when they meet the eye. Constructive interference takes place.Found that light propagated without a medium.
Einstein's First Postulate
The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference
Einstein's Second Postulate
The speed of light in a vacuum is the same as measured by all inertial observers.
Proper Time
T=gammaTo . The time measured by a clock at rest relative to the event. To is proper time
Time Dilation
the effect that time moves more slowly in an inertial frame moving with respect to a stationary one.
Twin Paradox
One twin stays put on Earth, while the other twin goes straight into space and comes back, moving at constant speed (except when she changes direction). Each twin sees the other twin's clocks running slowly. However, when the space twin lands, she has aged less than the Earth twin. Two reasons: 1) space twin was not in an equivalent reference frame when she changed direction, and 2) differences in spacetime are equal in any coordinate system, and the space twin traveled less spacetime.
Length Contraction
The shortening of an object along its direction of motion as its speed approaches the speed of light, as measured by an observer not moving with the object. L=Lo/gamma where Lo is proper length
Proper Length
is measured at rest relative to the object.
Relativistic Mass
the mass measured moving relative to the body m=m0gamma. Where m0 is the rest mass
Rest Mass
measured at rest relative to body (mass)
Relativistic Momentum
p=gamma x m0 x v
The Principle of Equivalence
No observer can determine by experiment whether they are in an accelerating frame of reference or a gravitational field.
Gravitational Mass
Mass calculated from F=mg
Inertial Mass
The force that must be applied to make an object accelerate with the spaceship. The mass is calculated using F=ma
Black Hole
Space time in curved so much that lights loses all of its energy and can't escape.
Swarzschild Radius
The radius of a collapsed star that is small enough to prevent light from escaping.
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