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71 terms

CEPD 4101 Midterm

definitions for the CEPD 4101 midterm
STUDY
PLAY
Brofenbrenner's Theory
Views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment (family - neighborhood/community - state/province/country)
Schemes
an organized group of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in response to the environment
Assimilation
process of dealing with a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme
Equilibration
movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium and back to equilibrium, a process that promotes development of more complex thought and understandings
Preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which children can think about objects and events beyond their immediate view but do not yet reason in logical, adultlike ways
Preoperational egocentrism
inability of children in Piaget's preoperational stage to view situations from another person's perspective
Conservatism
realization that if nothing is added or taken away, amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement
Concrete operations stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development in which adultlike logic appears but is limited to concrete reality
Formal operations stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development in which logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as to concrete objects
Self-talk
process of talking to oneself as a way of guiding oneself through a task
Zone of proximal development
range of tasks that a learner can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independently
Scaffolding
support mechanism that helps a learner successfully perform a task within his or her zone of proximal development
Syntax
set of rules that one uses, often unconsciously, to put words together into sentences
Pragmatics
knowledge about culture-specific social conventions guiding verbal interactions
Phonemes
smallest unit of sounds to make up words, there are 44 in the English language
Personality
characteristic ways in which an individual behaves in a wide range of circumstances
Temperament
genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social environment
Attachment
strong, affectionate bond formed between a child and a caregiver
Socialization
process of molding a child's behavior and beliefs to be appropriate for his or her own culture group
Self-efficacy
belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
Erikson's Theory
proposed that most people achieve an overall sense of identity by the end of adolescence
Social cognition
process of thinking about how other people are likely to think, act, and react
Aggressive behavior
action intentionally taken to hurt another either physically or psychologically
Kohlberg's morality
six stages of moral reasoning grouped into three levels of morality - preconventional morality, conventional morality, and postconventional morality
Culture
behaviors and belief system of a long-standing social group
Ethnic group
people who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence
Dialect
form of a language that has certain unique pronunciations and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group
Personal space
personally or culturally preferred distance between two people during social interaction
Wait time
length of time a teacher pauses, after either asking a question or hearing a student's comment, before saying something
Stereotype
rigid, simplistic, and erroneous caricature of a particular group of people
Gender schemas
self-constructed, organized body of beliefs, about the traits and behaviors of males or females
Socioeconomic status
one's general social and economic standing in society; encompasses family income, occupation and education level
Students at risk
student with a high probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for success in the adult world
Intelligence
ability to apply prior knowledge and experiences flexibly to accomplish challenging new tasks
IQ score
score on an intelligence test, determined by comparing a student's performance on the test with that of others in the same age group, for most tests it is a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15
Students with special needs
students different enough from their peers that they require specially adapted instructional materials and practices
Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA)
US legislation granting educational right from birth until age 21 for people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities
Least restrictive environment
most typical and standard educational environment that can reasonably meet the needs of a student with a disability
Individual education program (IEP)
written description of an appropriate instructional program for a student with special needs
Learning disabilities
deficiencies in one or more specific cognitive processes but not in overall cognitive functioning
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
disorder marked by inattention, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, or some combination of these characteristics
Speech and communication disorders
impairments in spoken language or language comprehension that significantly interfere with classroom performance
Emotional and behavioral disorders
emotional states and behaviors that consistently and significantly disrupt academic learning and performance
Autism spectrum disorders
disorders marked by impaired social cognition, social skills, and social interaction, as well as by repetitive behaviors; extreme forms often associated with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors
Intellectual disability
student with general delays in cognitive and social functioning
Physical and health impairments
general physical or medical conditions that interfere so significantly with school performance that special accommodations are required
Cognitive process
particular way of mentally responding to or thinking about information or an event
Information processing theory
theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific ways in which learners mentally think about, or process, new information and events
Constructivism
theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, a body of knowledge from their experiences
Memory
ability to save something mentally that has been previously learned; also the mental "location" where such information is saved
Sensory register
component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time (2-3 seconds at the most, depending on the modality)
Attention
focusing of mental processing on particular stimuli
Working memory
component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information
Rehearsal maintenance
cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over fairly quickly as a possible way of learning and remembering it
Long-term memory
component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time
Declarative knowledge
knowledge related to "what is" that is, to the nature of how things are, where, or will be
Procedural knowledge
knowledge concerning how to do something
Rote learning
learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it
Elaboration
cognitive process in which learners expand on new information based on what they already know
Concept maps
diagram of concepts and their interrelationships; used to enhance the learning and memory of a topic
Prior knowledge activation
process of reminding learners of things they already know relative to a new topic
Mnemonic
memory aid trick designed to help students learn and remember a specific piece of information
Situated learning and cognition
knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited or no transfer to other contexts
Automaticity
ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task
Retrieval cue
hint about where to look for a piece of information in long-term memory
Distributed cognition
process whereby learners think about an issue or problem together, sharing ideas and working collaboratively to draw conclusions or develop solutions
Overgeneralization
overly broad view of the objects or events that a concept includes
Undergeneralization
overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes
Conceptual understanding
meaningfully learned and well-integrated knowledge about topic, including many logical connections among specific concepts and ideas
Authentic activities
classroom activity similar to one that students are apt to encounter in the outside world
Confirmation bias
tendency to seek information that confirms rather than discredits current beliefs