31 terms

Study Guide: Articles of Confederation/Constitutional Convention

History test
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Confederation
a government made up of many parts in which the individual parts retain most of the power and the central government has very little power
Congress could
settle disputes between states, conduct foreign affairs, and borrow money
A big problem (in Articles of Confederation) was
Congress could not tax the states
States could send between
two and seven delegates to Congress, but no matter how many they sent, the state had one vote
Delegates from five states met at
Annapolis Convention and called for a "Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to [meet any crisis] of the Union."
Northwest Ordinance Treated each territory as a
state in embryo, allowed citizens to establish free governments and write constitutions, allowed territories to apply for statehood when they reach a population of 60,000, and said a state would be on equal footing with other states after admission.
Northwest Ordinance abolished
slavery, provided for freedom of religion, and the right to a trial by jury in the territories
Northwest Ordinance was passed
under the Articles of Confederation
Northwest Ordinance organized
the expansion of the United States
The Shay's Rebellion was caused by
caused by desperate Massachusetts farmers concerned with courts imposing prison sentences for debt and foreclosing on farm mortgages
The Shay's Rebellion was a
wake up call to American leaders that the government needed to be reviewed and there was perhaps a need for a stronger national government.
At Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
55 delegates from 12 states convened to discuss ideas to fix or replace the Articles of Confederation
The delegates elected
George Washington president of the proceedings
James Madison
considered the "father" of the Constitution
Virginia Plan
Plan that favored the larger states by basing representation on population
New Jersey Plan
Plan that favored the smaller states by giving equal representation no matter size or population
Roger Sherman
proposed the Great Compromise, which combined the two plans
The Virginia Plan was the basis for
House of Representatives
New Jersey Plan was the basis
the Senate
Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan created
bicameral (two house) legislature in Congress
Southern states wanted
slaves to count as population because that would mean more representation in Congress
Northern states did not want
slaves to count because it would mean less representation in
Congress for them
The compromise was to count slaves as
three-fifths of a person when determining population for representation
Legislative
Congress; Makes the laws; can override veto; taxes (which originate in the House); borrowing of money; declare war
Judicial
Supreme Court; Interprets the laws; power of judicial review
Executive
President; Carries out the laws; Commander-In-Chief of military; power of veto; can negotiate treaties; appoints Supreme Court Justices
Federalists
Supported ratification; Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison
Federalist Papers
a series of letters to newspapers supporting ratification of the Constitution
Federalist letters
are now in a collection that is a seminal book in studies of American government
The authors of the Federalist Paper soften used the pen-name
"Publius" honor of Roman consul Publius Valerius Publicola
Anti-Federalists
Demanded protections against government be added before ratification (a Bill of Rights); Patrick Henry, George Mason, James Monroe
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