American writer along with cooper that attains national recognition. Used American scenes and themes., American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Elected by Jeffersonians and is in-between founding fathers and age of nationalism. President during the era of good feelings. Also led during the panic of 1819. Missouri compromise likewise makes him look bad, still reelected with all votes but one. Negotiated the treaty of 1818 with Britain. Shared fisheries with Canada and showed limits for louisiana along with joint occupation of oregon. Told Jackson to punish florida outlaws and pursue them to Spanish territory, but respect spanish flag. Also helped negotiate florida purchase treaty of 1819. Gives monroe doctrine against colonization and european intervention in the W. He was mostly concerned about own country, not latin america.
James Fenimore Cooper
American writer along with irving that attains national recognition. Used American scenes and themes., American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).
Served in valley forge, saw the drawbacks of no central authority. Made the weak judiciary powerful with judicial review and soon made it the strongest branch, Was a federalist who interpreted things his own way. Led his other republican appointed judges. Helped make federal gvt stronger. Opposed masses and manhood suffrage, votes for property class. Hurt states rights of maryland in McCulloch v maryland. Constitution allows gvt to act on will of people. Anything appropriate and consistent with constitution are constitutional. Also showed fed gvt power over state rulings in cohens v virginia. Shows gvt power over interstate commerce in gibbons v ogden. Protects private property against masses in fletcher v peck. Shows supreme court can invalidate state laws conflicting w/constitution. Also shows that business contracts are safeguarded from states in dartmouth college v woodward. English charter cant be invalidated by the state. Agrees with policies of daniel webster.
John C Calhoun
Ardent nationalism that supports the tariff bill. Thought the future of the S lay in manufacturing and cultivating cotton. Soon opposed the tariff and concluded it was for Yankee manufacturers to get self-sufficiency. Makes Bonus bill that gives 1.5 million to state for internal improvements.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of state for james Monroe. Doesn't want to punish andrew jackson and got others to agree that Spain was at fault for allowing outlaws to go out of control in first place. Said Spain violates treaty of 1795 by not suppressing them. Spain either takes control or cedes area. Also is against working with britain in canning proposal. Said deal would commit US to nonexpansion in latin areas. Said european powers weren't necessarily gonna invade anyway. Britain has all naval power anyway, why get involved.
New Hampshire guy who opposes tariff. Nationalist who later turns around and supports the tariff. First thought that shipping would interfere with trade but then would later exchange shipping for manufacturing. Fights for dartmouth college against the state legislature of new hampshire who tried to change George III charter. Often left the senate to fight in the supreme court for federalist philosophy. Many arguments against states rights and nullification he uses in supreme court, on the same side as marshall.
Chased indian and white outlaws into spain but was supposed to respect spanish posts when doing so. Hung two indian chiefs and executed two british subjects for assisting the indians. Also seized st.Marks and Pensacola and deposed the spanish governor.
Developed the American system. Protective tariff makes E manufacturing flourish. Revenue goes to roads and canals in ohio valley that would flow foodstuff and raw materials from south and West to North and East. Manufactured goods go in other direction. Also called for internal improvements. Leads the Missouri compromise.
Asked US to combine with britain in joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring latin american territory and warning other europeans to keep hands off latin republics. Angry with monroe doctrine.
Spirit of nation conscious or national oneness. Emerged after the war of 1812. Came for recent victories, setbacks to sectionalism of federalists/states' rights, lessoning of economic/political dependence on Europe, and confidence in future. People see themselves as Americans more than states. Grows from new capitol, beating north african pirates, and expanding army and navy. Most nationalist areas are the West. Also seen from monroe doctrine. John Quincy Adams supports it with internal improvements, national school, observatory, . People slowly favor sectionalism though. Judicial nationalism can be seen in John Marshalls rulings.
Refers to slavery in the S. Name that N people give it because they don't agree and want to abolish it.
First one ever is passed in 1816 to protect industries. At the time its not a big deal but it lays the grounds for more to come.
Idea that US expressed where Europe cant take any new colonies after the monroe doctrine. Can keep old ones though.
improving roads and canals. Had hurt invasion of Canada since there were none. Part of Calhoun's bonus bill of 1817. Vetoed as unconstitutional. New England is against it since it creates competing states and drains population.
Idea in monroe doctrine similar with isolationism, US wanted distance between Europe and latin america in regards to invasions and land taking.
Geographical parts of the US ganging up against each other. W (clay) v S (calhoun) v NE (webster). Seen most obviously in 1819 missouri compromise, panic of 1819, webster-hayne debate, tariff issue, opposition to internal improvements, hatred of bank, nullification crises in SC, texas annexation.
Americas idea that they are far from Europe dangers because it wanted to be and because monroe had warned them in monroe doctrine. US keeps to itself.
Call of cheap land that attracted European immigrants. people from abroad come to W and land exhaustion in tobacco states move people W. Embargo had hurt many commercial people and they moved W once harrison and Jackson had pacified the frontier. Land routes had made transportation better. Upstream navigation also makes it easier for transport.
Second Bank of the United States
Revived after weak state banks had hurt war effort with all depreciated bank notes. New bank has capital of 35 million, opposed by federalists.
McCulloch v Maryland
Maryland wants to destroy a branch of bank of US by imposing tax on its notes. Marshall says bank is constitutional and strengthens federal authority by denying marylands right to tax the notes.
Tariff of 1816
British try to hurt American industries with cheap goods. Legislators pass this and its used primarily to protect industries. 20 to 25 percent on imports.
Cohens v Virginia
Cohens is found guilt of selling lottery tickets by virginia. Conviction of cohens is upheld but marshall asserted right of supreme court to review state supreme court in all questions involving powers of federal gvt.
Protective tariff makes E manufacturing flourish. Revenue goes to roads and canals in ohio valley that would flow foodstuff and raw materials from south and West to North and East. Manufactured goods go in other direction.
Gibbons v Ogden
Attempt by state of NY to grant to a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between NJ and NY. Marhsall reminds them that congress decides interstate commerce. Hurts states rights again.
Fletcher v Peck
Georgia legislature grants 35 mil acres in yahoo river county to private speculators. Next legislature gives up grant bowing to public pressure. Marshall said old legislature grant is a contract and constitution forbids state laws impairing contracts. Protects property rights against popular pressure. Invalidates state laws conflicting with constitution.
Series of presidents Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe who are all from the same state.
Dartmouth college v woodward
College granted a charter by King George III but NH legislature wants to change it. Daniel Webster works w/dartmouth to challenge the legislature. Marshall says original charter must stand. Contracts are free from state encroachment. Safe guarded business from state rulings. Enabled corporations to escape state control.
Era of good feelings
Referred to Monroe presidency, only one real party. Period is tranquil politically. Later period is troubled with tariff, bank, internal improvements, etc. Sectionalism begins later.
Treaty of 1818
Negotiated with britain and monroe. Allowed America to share the coveted Newfoundland fisheries that Cnada owns. Fixes borders of Louisiana in N on 49th parallel. Also allows joint occupation of oregon.
Panic of 1819
Recession that started with overspeculation in frontier lands. Countries become sectionalist as they try to bail themselves out. Bank of US forces W banks to wall and forecloses on farms, W people get angry. Land Act of 1820 passes in order to regulate the sale of public lands. Helps curb W speculation. Showed inhumanity of prisons and hurt poorer classes. Deflation, Depression, Bankruptcies, Bank failures, Unemployment, soup kitchens, and overcrowded debtors prisons.
Spain cedes florida and oregon in exchange for US abandonment of texas. W boundary of louisiana is zig zag along rockies to 42 parallel and then due west to pacific.
Land Act of 1820
Lightened the old land act of 1800. Could get 80 acres at 1.25 an acre for total cost of 100. Less acreage and less outlay. Less of a chance for over speculation.
Warned European powers with noncolinzation and nonintervention. Era of colonization in Americas is over and sea is closed. No more territory can be taken anymore. Angers new nations germany and italy. Said keep monarchy systems out of S America and US wont be part of Europe stuff. Gratified the national pride. Offends European powers who know America is not powerful, but they cant invade anyway because of Britain. Britain agrees with the doctrine for most part. Most people know its British navy, not US, that is protecting Latin America. Doctrine itself is reinterpreted by later presidents. Helped give US isolationism.
Says that no more slaves can be brought into Missouri and says that gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents there also. Angers S slaveholders and pioneers who don't want gvt joined with bitter federalists against monroe. Soon is defeated in the Senate though.
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
Tsar formally retreats from Oregon and fixed its S most limits at 54 40'. S tip of alaska panhandle.
Missouri wants to be a slave state and has enough population. HOR passes Tallmadge amendment andAngers S slaveholders and pioneers who don't want gvt joined with bitter federalists against monroe. Three compromises made. Congress admits Missouri as slave state and Maine is admitted as a free state. N and S have 12 states each. Slavery banned above 36 30 line which is Missouri S line. Most S vote against it since its slightly against them, some vote for it since N prarie lands isn't good for slaves anyway. Preserved union of the states.
A war hero with personal appeal in the W. Wanted to save gvt from corruption and privilege. Didn't win majority of electoral vote, though had most popular vote. Get screwed over with bargain of Clay and Adams. Eventually won in 1828, angry people against Adams elect jackson. Want to sweep out corrupt Adams gang. Wife dies, supposedly from insults given by people calling her an adulterer. Grew up with no parents, as a youth was a brawler and cockfighter. He wrote later in life, not good at spelling. Moved W and became a member of congress. Called old hickory for toughness when commanding militia. No education, nominated by vote, and from W. Owned many slaves and lived in the hermitage. Suspicious of gvt and wants to reduce it against american system. Said gvt has ultimate power over states though. took power from congress and defied supreme court. Had an inaugural brawl party where the whitehouse is trashed and people are injured. Utilized spoils system in order to get rid of old bureaucracy civil servants. Put in new servants under him. He uses rotation in office and allows as many servants as possible in office. Tried to get lots of people in government whether or not they are experienced. Made civil servants have to be loyal to party, rather than actually helping country. Offices are not not secure, people don't want to enter public service as much. Some people who are given office steal money or do a terrible job. Allowed some internal improvements but didn't allow intrastate improvements. Vetoed a bill for Maysville road which is completely in Kentucky.
John C Calhoun
S rep that is against tariff of abominations. Wrote S Carolina Exposition against tariff, about nullify federal law. Wants to preserve union and stop succession by allowing the S to nullify the majorities laws. Became vice president under Jackson. His wife insults O'neale and Jackson and Buren disagree with him. Soon they totally turn against him. Soon abandoned his nationalism and became a S sectionalist. Him and Jackson conflict over union vs states rights.
Ran for president in 1824 but was eliminated when votes went to the house. Disliked Jackson who competed for W favor. Clay would rather have Adams win. Told Adams he supported him, they agree on american system, both are nationalists. When Adams is elected, Clay becomes Sec of state. Soon defeated by Jackson who opposes him.
Martin Van Buren
Sec of state for andrew jackson who is a wire puller and conciliator. Only talented member of cabinet. Took the side of helping peggy o'neale in order to have favor with Jackson against Calhoun.
Ran for president in 1824, referred to as king caucus. Eventually died from a stroke after votes went to the house.
Spoke against Hayne in the senate. Defended NE and said nullification doesn't count since people, not states, make constitution. States cant nullify the constitution. Said each state cant do its own thing or else union would die.
Robert Y Hayne
Senator of SC who fights to stop the N bill that would hurt sale of W lands. Spoke in senate and condemned New England as sectionalist in war of 1812. Fought for S rights against tariff and N, and advocated nullification.
Americans with plain trousers, plain hair, and a coonskin cap. Ordinary people who are now trying to be convinced to vote for respective politicians.
Universal manhood suffrage rather than property qualifications. Vermont is first to do so, same w/W (where land is so easy to attain anyway). Property test for offices is abolished, some judges are being elected. S trails other sections in extending democracy. Started because of panic of 1819, banks take property and don't pay people back for bank notes. Causes anger toward banks, people want fair play. People want to separate banks from the gvt. Missouri compromise makes S want to increase representation. Presidents have popular vote primaries now, voter turnout rises. Caucus's looked down upon, don't want president indebted to congress.
Idea that states can nullify federal law. Used by SC against the tariff of abominations.
Rewarding political supporters with public office. Used by Andrew Jackson in order to give spoils for people on his side. Emphasized spoils more than responsibilities. Didn't want continuance of the old bureaucracy, had new young Jacksonians. Many like Samuel Swartwout take advantage of offices and steal money, don't help country. Also created a stronger political party machine.
Rotation in office
Throw out old bureaucracy and put in new people who don't necessarily had experience. part of the spoils system that Jackson utilized. Many people serve in gvt for at least a short time under him.
People who are nominated by caucus's and not democratically. Used against crawford and others chosen by congressional cliques.
Only political party of this era. Soon will fraction into many different parties.
Revolution of 1828
Jackson elected over "corrupt" Adams. Not really a landslide, but common people do come out victorious. Increased turnout, showed politics is shifting to the W. Transfer of power to the farmers. Poor have triumph over aristocrats.
Says that when any candidate fails to gain a majority of the electoral votes, the election must go to the house of representatives who pick the winner. Adams and Clay combine votes to dismiss popularly elected jefferson.
Refers to the followers of Jackson and Jackson himself. His followers were seen as vulgar and traditionalists saw his election similar to french revolution.
Refers to the bargain between henry clay and Adams. Clay doesn't want jackson to win and gives adams his support and votes. Even though jackson wins with votes and electoral votes, Adams wins in the HOR and clay becomes his sec of state.
Referred to president cabinet who were seen as mediocre and vulgar. They were said to meet in a kitchen and spit in spittoons. Cabinet didn't really have that much power though.
Tariff of Abominations
Bill that pushes tariff up to 45 percent on manufactured items. Imposes heavy tariff on wool also. Even industrial section goes against tariff cuz they need wool from outside. This would make Adams look bad in NE and Jackson look good in Middle states. Many NE people want to continue tariff tradition and are forced to pass it. Both S and NE are against it mostly though. S is scared gvt will interfere w/slavery next. S doesn't sell their cotton in a market protected by tariffs. If americans buy fewer british textiles, less S cotton is bought.
Sec of war eaton marries Peggy o'neale. She is looked down upon by women of jackson and calhoun family. Jackson tries to help Peggy o'neale fit in, but eventually the sec of war has to leave since his wife is insulted. Made Jackson turn against Calhoun, him and Van Buren are on O'neale's side.
South Carolina Exposition
Pamphlet written by John C Calhoun. Denounced the recent tariff as unjust and unconstitutional. Said that states should nullify the tariff within their borders.
Road that was to be built in Kentucky with federal funds. Jackson vetoes the bill since its only in one state, though it connects to interstate roads. Hurts clays american system and nationalism.
rule of cloture
Rule that says you cant stop a speaker in the house unless you have 60 percent of votes.
improvements that are within a state. Ruled unconstitutional for the federal government to sponsor them.
improvements that are between states, ruled constitutional for federal sponsorship
Headed the Bank of America autocratically. Lent funds to make friends, 59 members of congress totaling 1/3 of a mil dollars. Many congress members including webster battle for its interests. Also gave loans to newspaper editors for good press. Forced banks to the wall by calling in lots of loans. Many people are against the bank even more now.
Led the seminole indians in a guerilla war against US. Was eventually captured in a truce and lost the war.
Martin Van Buren
Person Andrew Jackson wanted as successor for democratic party. Wins the election and basically supposed to act like Jackson. Born in America and had lots of training in legislative/executive branches. Some don't like him sneaking in under the coat of Jackson. Didn't seem as powerful as jackson. Rebellion in Canada and war with britain he tries to avoid, and people don't like his neutrality. Also antislavery people hate him for annexing texas. Also had to battle a depression jackson made. Can't interfere with economy to stimulate it since it goes against jackson philosophy. Made divorce bill which gets rid of banking with government funds. Once again runs against william henry harrison, who is supposedly a commoner. Ends up losing to a popular harrison.
Dispatched modest naval and military reinforcements to the Palmetto State. Didn't win the conflict w/carolina 100%. Distrusted businesses and the bank. Vetoes the bank bill. Disregards judicial branch saying its constitutional. Makes presidency powerful with veto. Used it with his own personal beliefs, not always with constitutionality. Goes against Henry Clay and easily wins. Removed federal deposits from bank vaults, used savings to pay for stuff and put no more money in. Put money in a bunch of state banks. Refused to listen to supreme court decision that recognized cherokee council. Wanted lands for white settlement. Wants removal of eastern tribes to the W. Thought indians can preserve their culture in the W. Tried to serve a third term through Martin Van Buren, who he wanted as president. Forced people to nominate him and buren wins. Killing bank of US eventually leads to lesser banks competing, future has many smaller bank failures hurting america.
Mexico gives grant of Texas to him so he brings 300 american families. They were to be mexicanized and roman catholic. Many remain americans and go against Mexicos orders. Many are criminals who run out of time. Put in jail by Santa Anna when he went to mexico city to negotiate differences w/mexican gvt.
Nominee of whigs against Jackson. Loses to martin van buren. Runs again because has no enemies or opinions to be refuted. He won at tippecanoe and battle of thames. Has no platform cuz he doesn't want to make commitments. Takes role of old farmer from W, even though he's rich. Uses Jackson's strategy as coming across as a commoner. Eventually wins the election closely.
Didn't want to see Jackson crush Carolinians and defeat Calhoun. Threw his influence behind a compromise bill that would reduce tariff to 1816 level. Called tariff of 1833. Tried to recharter the bank 4 years early. If it passed Jackson looks bad, if it doesn't he would lose presidency. Ran against Jackson in 1832. Had heavy money from companies and biddles support in newspapers. Webster is also on his side. Worked with calhoun to make whigs.
Ex-governor of tennessee who has his bride leave him and he goes to Arkansas indians. Eventually makes it to Texas where he becomes a leader. Commander and chief of texas army. They have to retreat from Santa Anna's bigger army. Wiped out invading force at San Jacinto and captured Santa Anna. Forced him to agree to go back to Mexico and recognize Rio Grande Border. He ended up repudiating it though.
John C Calhoun
Worked with South Carolina in order to nullify the tariff law. Also works with clay to make whigs.
Led indians in Illinois and Wisconsin that resisted eviction. Crushed by Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln.
Raised an army in order to wipe out upstart texans. Ended their local rights and led 6000 men to the alamo, also slaughtered many texans at goliad. Eventually captured at San Jacinto and is forced to sign treaties making texas having a border at rio grande. Ends up repudiating treaties after signing though.
Leader of Texans at the alma against santa anna. He eventually loses the battle and dies with everyone else.
Making territory part of the union. Many southerners want to do this with Texas but Jackson is against it since it would touch off slavery anger between N and S when he wants election of Buren. North doesn't want this since they thought it would make the S more powerful.
Idea that people, usually from the North, agree with because they are against the peculiar instutiton.
favorite candidate in a regional area. whigs run a bunch of them so they take specific areas and split electoral vote, forcing election to house.
Tariff of 1832
Got rid of most of the tariff of abominations to the rate of 35 percent. Still was very protective and had an air of permanence S doesn't like.
Decree that required all public lands to be purchased with hard money since wildcat currency was so unreliable. This hurt purchasing in the W.
Tariff of 1833
Compromise tariff led by Henry Clay that lessons tariff to 1816 levels. Makes sure that Jackson doesn't have to use firearms against SC. Helps end the conflict.
Trail of Tears
Path that indians take to W lands after the indian removal act of 1830. They go to okahoma where they are permanently free from whites.
Panic of 1837
Speculation prompted by get rich quick people causes this. People gamble w/W lands and borrow capital of shaky banks. Jackson hurts banks and when wheat crops fail, the economy begins to break. Grain prices are high and people are crazy. Bank failures in England call for payback from US loans. Banks collapse with government funds. Sale of lands falls and customs revenues dies. Prices of stuff also drops. Unemployed people everywhere.
Given by congress against the carolinians. Authorized the president to use army and navy to collect federal tariff duties.
Retreated to Florida everglades with slaves to fight guerilla war. Killed 1500 soldiers and was a costly conflict. Americans kill their leader osceola under a truce. Some flee deeper into everglades but 4/5ths move to oklahoma.
Bill that Martin Van buren makes to separate federal funds from private banks. Made an independent treasury which locks surplus money in vaults. Funds are safe but they are denied to the banking system as reserves thereby shrinking abatable credit resources. Not to many people are for it but it passes.
Bank of the United States
Needed to be rechartered, Henry Clay tries but its rejected by Jackson. Only business people want bank, states rights/westerners/commoners are against a bank that helps E and britain investors. Had hurt wildcat banks and foreclosed on W farms. Run by elite aristocracy and headed by nicholas biddle. Gave loans to congressmen and newspapers for support. Pushed restraint on fly-by-night banks that were small. Gave sound bank notes and reduced bank failures. Made credit and sound currency abundant, also a safe depository for funds of Washington gvt. Its very important but doesn't seem egalitarian.
Place where gvt puts in surplus money in divorce bill. Put money in vaults and hidden in cities. Isn't associated with banks.
Opposed the fearsome the masonic order. Emphasized the murder of a new yorkers who threatens to expose rituals of masons. Suspicious of secret societies which seemed for privilege and monopoly. Against masonry of Jackson. Support of evangelicals who want to keep sabbath holy. Only wins vermont in the election.
Party that supported states rights and federal restraint in affairs. Started by Jackson supporters and splits from democratic-republicans. Martin Van Buren wins first election as an Andrew Jackson continuation. Buren loses in the end to harrison. Feel as though they are shut down by people who have no stance on issues.
State banks that Jackson puts his money in rather than national bank. Were pro jackson and not really that weak. A bunch of them fail in panic of 1837 and take gvt funds with them.
People who don't like Andrew Jackson. Make this party to recollect revolutionary opposition to monarchy. Joined clay and calhoun together. Attracts american system people, states rights people, Northern industrialists, and anti-masonic evangelicals. Send in many nominees so vote scatters and it goes to HOR. Then they can elect a president. William Henry Harrison is main nominee. Wants gvt to sponsor improvements, expand bank credit, and have higher tariffs. Soon they nominate harrison again and portray him as a commoner from a W log cabin, even though harrison is rich. Portrays Van Buren as a rich aristocrat. Don't make a platform cuz they don't want big commitments. Harrison eventually wins even though he doesn't have a platform. Supports national bank, tariffs, internal improvements, schools, and moral reforms against liquor.
banks in the West that give loans to people to buy frontier land. Often pressured for loans by the BUS.
Semi-literate guy Elected 3 times to HOR and Senate as king of the wild frontier. Could only write his name. Knows how to get things done, prowess with rifle. Knows what commoners value.
made a log rolling deal w/eisenhower that he wouldnt run for president if hes appointed to next justice position. soon becomes chief justice.