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Welcomed by slaves and women in decline. The decline of authority and deference and the rise of individualistic democratic social reforms.

alcoholic republic

Dramatic rise in alcoholic consumption. Posed a threat to authority and social order. Historians labeled the U.S. when consumption rises to 5 gallons per year.

National Road

Resumed by congress that linked the Potomac River with the Ohio River at Wheeling, Virginia. An attempt to link the West and East through the Chesapeake.

mixed agriculture

What most farmers and scholars would call "safety-first". They raised a variety of animals and plants.

Francis Cabot Lowell

A Boston merchant who was committed by a second act of industrial espionage.

Waltham System

The Boston Associates built their first mill and expanded in Lowell. Built mills that were heavily capitalized and as fully mechanized as possible.

American System

Proposed by Henry Clay to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections.

Henry Clay

Speaker of the house, senator of Kentucky, and National Republican presidential candidate who was the principal spokes man for the American System.

Erie Canal

Canal linking the Hudson River with the Great Lakes that helped commercialize the farms of the Great Lakes watershed and channel that commerce into the New York City.

Robert Fulton

Builder of the Clermont, the first practical steam-driven boat.


Semitropical plant that produced white, fluffy fibers that could be made into textiles.


Wage-earning craftsman.

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