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intervertebral discs

Softens jolts to the vertebral column

Sacral foramina

Opening for spinal nerve exit

Thoracic cage

Bony protection for the thoracic organs


First cervical vertebra


Second cervical vertebra

Thoracic Vertebrae

Articulates with rib posteriorly



Vertebral Column

Encloses and protects the spinal cord

Thoracic, sacral

Primary curvatures

Cervical, lumbar

Secondary curvatures

Vertebral arch

Formed by the fusion of pedicles and lamina

Transverse Foramina

Passageway for vertebral arteries in cervical vertebrae

Sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic vertebrae

Name the 4 parts of the thoracic cage

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

Name the 3 bones of the sternum

jugular notch

concave depression in superior surface of manubrium


False ribs


True ribs


Floating ribs


Space between ribs

Transverse Foramina

A special feature present on the transverse process of cervical vertebrae

Superior demafacet, inferior demafacet, facet

Three special features present on the thoracic vertebrae for rib articulations


A part of the rib that articulates with the body of the thoracic vertebrae


A part of the rib that articulates with the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae


The odontoid process is a part of which bone

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