Research Design Exam 1
Terms in this set (56)
No scientific method, based on folklore not based on evidence, "what I see is the reality", very subjective. Everyones point is valid
Develops scientific method, no right or wrong, positivism - there is a reality out there but we don't have the tools to know what it is yet. Need to develop better ways to find out why things happen. Some people know reality better than others. Trying to find "the Truth". Particular to medical science and physical science.
Particular to social science and humanities. There is no reality, it's all about how you construct it. No valid reality, all multi-dimensional. Started in 60s and 70s. What is important about human life is a subjective question. No universal truth. Pay attention to variance of experiences.
The science of knowing
A scientific explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life
Use of variables to help express relationships between two things.
How you connect data to theory
A logical set of attributes. The variable 'sex' is made up of the attributes male and female.
A variable with values that are not problematical in analysis but are taken as simply given. An independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable. Any given variable might be treated as independent in one part of an analysis and dependent in another part of it.
A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another (the IV) If you find that income is partly a function of amount of formal education, income is treated as a dependent variable.
One step beyond conceptualization. Operationalization is the process of developing operational definitions, or specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable
An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event. Seeking generalizations as opposed to anecdotes.
An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events.
The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations (start with observations to make a theory)
The logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles (hypothesis...start with theory, test with data)
3 criteria for establishing causality
Temporal precedence, covariation of cause and effect, no plausible alternative explanation
Unit of Analysis
The what or whom being studied. In social science research, the most typical units of analysis are individual people. Individuals, organizations, geo political, artifacts
A study based on observations representing a single point in time
A study design involving data collected at different points time, as contrasted with a cross-sectional study.
A type of longitudinal study in which a given characteristic of some population is monitored over time. (Ex. the series of Gallup polls showing the electorate's preferences for political candidates over the course of a campaign, even though different samples were interviewed at each point)
A longitudinal study in which some specific subpopulation, or cohort, is studied over time, although data may be collected from different members in each set of observations. (studying a group of people of the same age group/generation)
A type of longitudinal study, in which data are collected from the same set of people (the sample or panel) at several points in time. (interviewing same individuals a number of times over a period of time)
Voluntary participation, risks, informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, deception
A norm in which subjects base their voluntary participation in research projects on a full understanding of the possible risks involved.
Anonymity is guaranteed in a research project when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response respondent. safer to keep info protected because not even researched knows your identity. Use surveys, certain types of data collection can't be anonymous.
A research project guarantees confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given person's response but promises not to do so publicly. (Can be hacked, breached)
Institutional Review Board
Ethical review board is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans.
Researchers must obtain the ok for the study from the board if using human subjects
Provide contact info to IRB on consent form
Often used as legal protection for the university
A model or framework for observation and understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we understand it. The conflict paradigm causes us to see social behavior one way, the interactionism paradigm causes us to see it differently.
A theory aimed at understanding the "big picture" of institutions, whole societies, and the interactions among societies. Karl Marx's examination of the class struggle is an example of the macrotheory.
A theory aimed at understanding social life at the level of individuals and their interactions. Explaining how the play behavior of girls differs from that of boys is an example of microtheory
Studying organizations, communities, and perhaps social categories such as gender.
Dimension of a variable
A specifiable aspect of a concept. "Religiosity," for example, might be specified in terms of a belief dimension, a ritual dimension, a devotional dimension, a knowledge dimension, and so forth.
A variable whose attributes have only the characteristic of exhaustiveness and mutual exclusiveness. In other words, a level of measurement describing a variable that has attributes that are merely different, as distinguished from ordinal, interval, or ratio measures
A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes we can rank-order along some dimension. An example is socioeconomic status as composed of the attributes high, medium, low.
A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank-ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes. The Fahrenheit temperature scale is an example of this, because the distance between 17 and 18 is the same as that between 89 and 90.
A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes that have all the qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures and in addition are based on a "true zero" point. Age is an example of a ratio measure.
A type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more general dimension. Contrasted with scale.
A type of composite measure composed of several different items that have a logical or empirical structure among them
Bogardus Social Distance scale
A measurement technique for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations - of varying degrees of closeness - with other kinds of people. It is an especially efficient technique in that one can summarize several discrete answers without losing any of the original details of the data
A type of composite measure, constructed in accordance with the weights assigned by "judges" to various indicators of some variables.
A type of composite measure developed by Rensis Likert in an attempt to improve the levels of measurement in social research through the use of standardized response categories in survey questionnaires to determine the relative intensity of different items. Likert items are those using such response categories as "strongly agree," "agree," "disagree," and "strongly disagree."
A questionnaire format in which the respondent is asked to rate something in terms of two, opposite adjectives (e.g., rate textbooks as "boring" or "exciting"), using qualifiers such as "very," "somewhat," "neither," "somewhat" and "very" to bridge the distance between the two opposites.
The classification (typically nominal) of observations in terms of their attributes on two or more variables. The classification of newspapers as liberal-urban, liberal-rural, conservative-urban, or conservative-rural would be an example.
That aggregation of elements from which a sample is actually selected; sample must be representative of population
The summary of population characteristics
That list or quasi list of units composing a population from which a sample is selected. If the sample is to be representative of the population, it is essential that the sampling frame include all (or nearly all) members of the population.
The general term for samples selected in accordance with probability theory, typically involving some random-selection mechanism. Specific types of probability sampling include: EPSEM, PPS, simple random sampling, systematic sampling.
Simple random sampling
A type of probability sampling in which the units composing a population are assigned numbers. A set of random numbers is then generated, and the units having those numbers are included in the sample. Although probability theory and the calculations it provides assume this basic sampling method it's seldom used, for practical reasons. An equivalent alternative is systematic sampling (with a random start).
A type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample for example every 25th student in the college directory of students. You complete k by dividing the size of the population by the desired sample size; is called the sampling interval. Within certain constraints, systematic sampling is functional equivalent of simple random sampling and usually easier to do. Typically, the first unit is selected at random.
The grouping of the units composing a population into homogenous groups (or strata) before sampling. Process improves the representativeness of a sample, at least in terms of the variables used for stratification.
Multi-stage cluster sampling
Each stage of sampling reduced the sample size. Stage 1, 2, 3. Example: Divide the households of New Orleans by neighborhoods and correspond with the addresses.
When you don't have a sampling frame and parameter.
Used in inductive research when you're looking to see which variable matters. You might start to expand your sample by talking to lots of people.
When you talk to someone and they refer you to more people. You expand your sample in that way. Example: Homeless population; there's a potential that you're talking to a group of people who are just like each other. The goal is to not miss out on groups that are part of your study population.
Units are selected into a sample on the basis of prespecified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied.
Someone who is well versed in the social phenomenon that you wish to study and who is willing to tell you what he or she knows about it. If you were planning participant observation among the members of a religious sect, you would do well to make friends with someone who already knows about them - possibly a member of the sect - who could give you some background information about them.