Physiology Ch3

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third ch. of the tortora textbook.

what are the four characteristics of the cell membrane?

double layer of phospholipids
"gate keeper" (regulate what comes in and out)
amphipathic (both polar and non-polar qualities)

What model describes the plasma membrane?

Fluid Mosaic. it is a dynamic structure. NOT STATIC.

What are the substances that make up the Cell membrane?


What are the different types of lipids that make up the Cell membrane?



Amphpathic- polar and nonpolar
Make up 75% of the C.M.
Arranged in a bilayer


20% of CM
Found on the outside of cell facing the ECF
Aid in cell adhesion, communication and regulation of cell growth


5% of CM
Strengthens the membrane but reduces flexibility

What are the two types of membrane proteins?


Intergral proteins

extend across the membranec among fatty acids. poke out on both sides. most are Glycoproteins.

Peripheral proteins

DO NOT extend though. attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane.
*aid in the function of intergral proteins

What is the key concept of proteins?

membrane proteins and Glycoproteins largely reflect the the functions a cell can proform

What are the different types of Integral proteins


Channel proteins (Ion Channel)

have pores where substances can easily pass in or out.

Transport protein

transports specific substances across CM by changing shape

Receptor protien

Recognized specific Lingand and alters cell function.


Catalyzes reactions inside or outside CM

Linker protein

provide structural stability by anchoring filaments inside or outside CM


Distinguishes one cell from another. Glycolipids and Glycoproteins

What are the functions of the Cell membrane?

Cellular communication
Est. electrochemical gradient
Selective permeability

Cellular communication

the cell must communicate w/ other cells, proteins, neurotransmitter, and hormones

Est. electrochemical gradient

the CM separates the ECF from the ICF and creates a chemical and electrical difference.


Greater Concentration of Na and Cl


Greater concentration K cations and PO4 anions. is more negative than the ECF

membrane potential

the difference in charges btwn the 2 sides of the CM create a Voltage Difference. for most cells -20mV and -200mV

what are the four major factors that determine membrane permeability?

lipid solubility
charge (Ion)
presence of channels or transports

Passive transport

no energy required
Simple Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion

Active transport

energy required
Primary ATP
Secondary ATP

Vesicular transport


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