BT Test 3 Terms
Terms in this set (71)
8th century Israelite prophet. He insisted that socioeconomic justice and personal morality must accompany worship of God.
the designation for the kind of prophecy that begins in the 8th century BCE. The prophets of this era communicate with a wider circle of people, including average Israelites, and more of their messages were put into writing. These prophets are known for their message of the necessity of social justice and the worship of only God.
ruler of the Persian Empire who allows the Judahites (the remaining Israelites) to return to their ancestral land (Judah). Isaiah calls him God's messiah, anointed one.
lived in the time of the exile and is an example of remaining faithful to God among the temptations and persecutions of life in a culture dominated by non-Israelites who worship many gods.
Day of the Lord
originally it was a phrase prophets used to speak of the time when God would act on the behalf of the Israelites to bring them victory. Later prophets reverse its meaning to warn of the time when God would act against Israel and Judah because of their unfaithfulness to God. In the New Testament, it refers to the second coming or Parousia of Christ.
6th century prophet who was taken to Babylon in the 1st wave of exiles form Jerusalem in 579 BCE. There he has dramatic visions about the presence of God moving to be with the exiles. These visions contributed must to the development of apocalyptic thought and imagery.
late 7th to early 6th century Israelite prophet who questions God about why injustice flourishes and disasters are coming to Judah, particularly on the heels of the reforms of good kind Josiah.
6th century prophet who encourages those who have returned to Judah from exile to rebuild the temple. He sees this rebuilding as a step toward peace and the establishment of God's kingdom.
the Jewish feast that celebrates the retaking of the temple by Judas Maccabee in 164 BCE. It is also known as the Feast of Dedication because Judas rededicated the temple to God after Antiochus IV had defiled it.
8th century prophet whose message takes the form of an allegory. His unfaithful wife (Gomer) is given as the parallel for the Israelites' unfaithfulness to God that is seen in their worship of other gods and their oppressive social and economic systems.
a literary pattern the prophets borrow from the judicial and governmental (empire ruler to vassal) spheres in which the charges are set out and the declaration of a verdict follows.
Name of at least 3 prophets. The first is the 8th century prophet who has a theophany of God in the temple as his call to a prophetic mission. The 2nd Isaiah writes during the exile of Judah. The 3rd Isaiah writes after Judah's return from exile. The messages of hope and restoration for the people found in these prophets were particularly important for the early church, which used them to understand the meaning of the ministry and death of Jesus.
7th to 6th century prophet of Judah who lives through the various stages of the exile in Jerusalem. He becomes the pattern for the persecuted and rejected but faithful prophet.
prophet who is probably active in the late 6th century. With his vision of a locust plague he asserts that disaster can only be averted through proper worship of God, including proper temple services with prophets taking an important role.
His folktale questions important prophetic and deuteronomistic themes.
Judean revolt that began in 167 BCE against the decrees outlawing the practice of Judaism in Judea by Antiochus IV.
late 6th to early 5th century post-exilic prophet. He looks forward to a faithful leader who will call the people to repent so that God's blessings will come to them.
8th century Israelite prophet who emphasized the importance of social justice. He argued that God will not accept the worship of people who treated others unjustly.
7th century prophet who writes an oracle against the Assyrians.
Capital of the Assyrian empire. This is the city to which Jonah was sent to preach. Its inhabitants are Ninevites.
prophet who writes oracles against the Edomites soon after the fall of Jerusalem.
ancient people of what is today Iran.
Post exilic Prophets
the Israelite prophets active in the time after the return of Judah from Babylonian exile to their ancestral homeland.
Exilic prophet who wrote under the name Isaiah. His writings appear in Isaiah chapters 40-55.
abode of the dead in Israelite thought. There were no distinctions between righteous and wicked people here, and the dead eventually faded out of existence.
visionary experience of the presence of God.
postexilic prophet who wrote in the name of Isaiah. His writings appear as chapters 56-66 in the book of Isaiah.
1) Postexilic prophet who urges the people to complete the temple and treat the poor justly 2) Father of John the Baptist.
7th century prophet who warned that the "Day of the Lord" would bring destruction on the nation unless the people stopped worshiping multiple gods. He also envisions restoration after the devastation.
name of a book of the Hebrew Bible. It is an example of the wisdom tradition in Israelite culture. This book questions whether life is meaningful.
Feast of Purim
a nonreligious celebration in the Jewish month of Adar that recalls the escape of the Jews from a pogrom in 5th century Persian Empire. The book of Esther serves to establish this as a feast Jews should keep.
God allows terrible things to happen to him and his family as a demonstration that Job is not faithful to God only because God blesses him. This book raises the issue of theodicy and questions the deuteronomistic scheme.
a literary term that designates a brief wise saying, for example, "pride goes before a fall."
God's general guidance and care of the world as seen in the form of creation, the broad outline of history, and perhaps even in events in the lives of individuals. This goodness of God supports human acts that lead to a world that more closely reflects what God wants.
a word that means oppose. In the book of Job, this figure in the heavenly court serves as the prosecuting attorney in heaven. By the time of the New Testament, the term has become the name of the ruler of the demonic realm.
the problem of the presence of evil and basic unfairness that exist in a world made by an all-good God. It is sometimes expressed by a person asking why bad things happen to good people.
the idea that things have no purpose or meaning. Ecclesiastes uses this term to describe life, and various aspects of life.
books that reflect the literary forms and outlook of the Wisdom tradition. They rely more on observation and interpretation of the world than on direct revelation from God.
a literary technique in which the first letter of each line either follows the sequence of the alphabet or forms a word or phrase.
a literary technique used in Hebrew poetry that sets opposite ideas or statements in immediately successive lines.
psalms designed to teach about God and how God wants people to live.
psalms that ask God to harm others and put curses on one's enemies
psalms that mourn a personal or national loss or defeat.
a literary technique used in Hebrew poetry that thematically and structurally links two or more lines.
Psalms of Praise
these palms praise various characteristics or acts of God.
a term for the collection of psalms in the Hebrew Bible otherwise called the Psalms.
Psalms that deal with particular moments in a king's career thanking God or asking God's blessing for the king's future.
a literary technique used in Hebrew poetry that repeats in immediately successive lines the same idea using different language or imagery.
a literary technique of Hebrew poetry in which a second line expands on the idea of the first line.
a psalm in which a person praises and thanks God for blessings or for being saved from some predicament.
Alexander the Great
Macedonian king who conquers southern Greece and then all the territory east to the boarder of India, reaching as far north as the Black Sea and as far south as North Africa. This created the largest empire the world had seen. In all these territories he instituted the policy of hellenization to form a common culture based on Greek culture
Egyptian god of the sun
Syrian king who outlawed Judaism in Judea and defiled the temple in 167 BCE. His actions led to the Maccabean Revolt. He added the title Epiphanes to his name.
Leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome in 132-35 CE
December 15, 167 BCE
Date Antiochus IV desecrated the Jerusalem temple and outlawed Judaism. These acts led to the beginning of the Maccabean revolt.
Designation for Jews who live outside Palestine. Since the Babylonian exile, more Jews have always lived outside Palestine than lived inside.
A semimonastic interpretation of Judaism. They began as a protest against the way the Maccabeans were running the temple. Their eschatology fueled their expectation that God would intervene to put them in charge of the temple. They were probably the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
A central educational institution of classical Greece. Alexander the Great and his successors used it to spread Greek culture throughout the Ancient Near East.
The family name of the Maccabean leaders.
Herod the Great
Ruler of Judea, Samaria, Galilee, and the Decapolic from 37 to 4 BCE. In Matthew's Gospel, he is still in power at the birth of Jesus. He was a ruthless and domineering ruler, but he also carried out a number of public works projects, including the enormous expansion of the temple of Jerusalem.
1) One of the 12 sons of Jacob who are ancestors of the 12 tribes of Israel. 2) The name of the southern kingdom whose capital was in Jerusalem, when the Israelites divided into two nations 3) The region around Jerusalem.
One of the leading interpretations of Judaism in the first century CE. They were known as the expert interpreters of the Law.
1st century Jewish writer and philosopher. Known for his platonic and allegorical interpretations of the biblical texts, his many writings give important info about some Jewish through in this period.
The Judeans who joined the Maccabean Revolt. They rejected the hellenization of Judaism that Antiochus IV proposed before he outlawed Judaism in Judea.
The Roman general who was a member of the first triumvirate. He is the general who took control in Jerusalem in 63 BCE. Although he left a Hasmonean as ruler, Judea was no longer an independent nation.
General of Alexander the Great. At Alexander's death he became ruler of Egypt and Coele-Syria.
Thought to be a settlement of the Essenes at the north end of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea Scrolls were found in caves close to this compound.
One of the leading interpretations of Judaism in the 1st century CE. This group had many priests as members.
General of Alexander the Great. Upon Alex's death, he became ruler of the area that included Persia, Babylonia, Syria, and part of souther Asia Minor.
The greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures that began coming together in the 2nd-3rd century BCE.
Place of worship and study, as well as a community center for Jews from the 6th/5th century BCE forward.