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Physical Geography Ch.3-4
Terms in this set (23)
When we measure air _____, we are measuring the vibrational (or kinetic) energy of the air molecules.
The layer of the atmosphere that absorbs and converts the shorter wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation, effectively safeguarding life on Earth, is the _______.
Gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are considered ________ components of the modern atmosphere.
Although ____________ is beneficial in the stratosphere, it becomes a pollution problem in high concentrations in the troposphere.
A temperature inversion can be described as a temporary reversal in the _________.
Normal lapse rate
Photochemical ________ is formed when the products of automobile exhaust are exposed to sunlight.
Which of the following is not a source of natural pollutant?
Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere reacts with oxygen to form sulfur trioxide, a highly reactive gas that in the presence of water forms _________ acid.
__________ consist(s) of dirt, dust, soot, and ash from industrial and natural sources that can affect human health.
Particulate matter (PM)
Approximately 90% of the total mass of the atmosphere can be found in the _______.
Correctly apply the normal lapse rate (6.4 degrees C per 1,000 meters) to the following scenario. Assuming a surface temperature of 40 degrees C, what will the temperature be 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface?
-24 degrees C
Air pressure decreases rapidly with increasing altitude. True or False
Gases in the heterosphere are evenly mixed and generally inert. True or False
The thermosphere comprises roughly the same layer as the homosphere. True or False
Tropospheric ozone (O3) is beneficial to human health. True or False
Light entering the atmosphere bends in a process known as ___________.
__________ is the molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance.
Albedo is properly associated with the _________ of shortwave radiation.
An increase in albedo caused by clouds resulting in the cooling of Earth's climate is described by the term _________.
Rainbows and mirages are examples of ___________.
Over time, Earth reradiates back to space an average of ___________ percent of total incoming energy.
__________ is the unobstructed and unaltered passage of shortwave and longwave energy through either the atmosphere or water.
The tendency of urban microclimates to reach temperatures as much as 6 degrees C (10 degrees F) hotter than surrounding suburban and rural areas is known as a(n) ____________.
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