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40 terms

Rome Vocabulary

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etruscans
An ancient people living in Italy and Corsica
latins
An ancient people living in the region of Latium, Italy, who believed that they descended from Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas
latium
region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people
republic
A form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote
patrician
In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class
plebeian
In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up most of the population
carthage
Phoenician city in modern-day Tunisia which grew to become a major power in the western Mediterranean.
tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights
consul
In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government
senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats
dictator
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time
legion
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback
punic wars
: A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean
hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
civil war
A conflict between two political groups within the same country
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
triumvirate
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government
Augustus
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180
Pompeii
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79
good emperors of Rome
A time when Rome was ruled by five good emperors in a row- Nerva, Trajan, Hadria, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
bad emperors of Rome
Caligula, Nero, Domitian
Diaspora
The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine - especially during the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the Roman's destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in A.D. 170
diocletian
Roman Emperor (284-305); the last systematic persecution of Christians took place towards the end of Diocletian's reign
constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome
inflation
A decline in the value of money, accompanied by the rise in prices of goods and services
mercenary
A soldier who is paid to fight in a foreign army
Attila
Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century
Greco-Roman culture
An ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Tacitus
Senator and historian of the Roman Empire, wrote the Annals and the Histories.
aqueduct
A pipeline or channel built to carry water to populated areas
justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
justinian code
The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534
Hagia Sofia
The cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
patriarch
A principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity
icon
religious image used by eastern Christians
excommunication
The taking away of a person's right of membership in a Christian church
cyrillic alphabet
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius