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Terms in this set (80)
The significance level is also known as
Type I error
Which of the following is a statement of equality?
p < .05 means that there is less than 1 chance in ____ that any differences found were not due to the hypothesized reason.
If the obtained value is greater than the critical value what should you do?
Reject the null hypothesis
What is the error that cannot be controlled called?
The level of chance or risk that you were willing to take is expressed as ...
A(n) ____________ difference is due to some systematic influence and not due to chance.
When you accept a false null hypothesis you are making a ______________.
Type II error
After you provide a statement of the null hypothesis you:
Set the significance level
The degree of risk you are willing to take that you will reject the null hypothesis when it is actually true is called ______________.
If you want to examine the difference between the average scores of two unrelated groups which of the following statistical techniques should you select?
Independent samples t-test
Power is equal to:
The value of the type II error subtracted from 1
Type II error is related to a factor such as _________________.
The degree of risk you are willing to take that you will reject a null hypothesis when it is actually true is called the ___________.
What does 1 - β represent?
After you compare the obtained value with the critical value you:
Reject the null hypothesis if the obtained value is more extreme than the critical value
When you reject the null hypothesis when there is actually no difference between groups or relationships between variables you are making a:
Type I error
How well a statistical test can detect and reject a null hypothesis when it is false refers to ______.
If you want to examine the difference between the average scores for students on a pre-test/ post-test measure which statistical technique should you select?
Dependent samples t-test
As compared with a 95% confidence interval a 99% confidence interval would result in:
A wider range of values in the confidence interval
The correlation between scores from time 1 and time 2 is called
Cronbach's Alpha is used to calculate the following
Internal consistency reliability
This is the level of measurement where outcomes are based on some underlying continuum where it is possible to speak about how much more a higher performance is than a lower one
The outcome variable in an analysis is called the
High school class rank is highly correlated with college GPA. This is an example of what type of validity?
If you correlate scores from your test with some other valid measure that assesses the same set of abilities, what type of validity evidence are your collecting?
Two trained professionals observe the behavior of children in a classroom. They each rate observed behaviors using the same form and the number of items that were rated the same is calculated. This is an example of which type of reliability?
What would the inter-rater reliability be for a 50 item measure in which the number of agreements between Rater 1 and Rater 2 was 45?
This explores the question "how do I know that the test, scale, instrument, etc. measures what it is supposed to?"
This is the difference between the observed and true scores
This type of validity is determined by the association between the test scores and some specified present or future criterion.
In terms of the reliability of test scores, there are multiple elements to each person's score. The score that is actually recorded is the...
Which of the following is concerned with monitoring estimates of present performance and predictions of future performance?
The actual or measured score is called
If you want to know that a test measures some underlying psychological construct, what type of validity evidence would you want to collect
If data are not reliable or not valid, the results of any test or hypothesis...
The treatment variable in an analysis is called the...
What are the four levels of measurement?
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
What is the key to establishing Criterion validity?
quality of criterion
only this level of measurement has a true zero
If you were to hypothesize that test scores from classroom A will be higher than test scores from classroom B, you have a
Directional research hypothesis
A statement that postulates a relationship between variables is referred to as a ___________.
If there is no difference between sample and population values, you will have
No sampling error
Null hypotheses refer to the following
The null hypothesis refers to the ___________, whereas the research hypothesis refers to the __________.
population / sample
Which of the following means "before the fact"?
Which of the following is a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population?
Which of the following is a directional test?
Research hypotheses refer to the following
What type of hypothesis posits a difference between groups where the difference is specified?
Which of the following is an example of a nondirectional hypothesis?
There is a relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain.
What test would you want to use to test a nondirectional research hypothesis?
The group you actually collect data from for your study is known as the __________.
In order to help ensure generalizability, which of the following should be true about your sample?
It is representative
Which of the following is a nondirectional test?
A two-tailed test
A smaller difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter means that you will have
lower sampling error
Optimally, it is possible to generalize you results from ________ to _________.
your sample/a larger population
Which of the following is an example of a directional hypothesis?
There is a positive relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain.
a sample is best defined as ________________.
A smaller group selected from a given population
A hypothesis is best defined as ______________.
an educated guess
T scores and z scores are both considered what type of score?
What characteristic of the normal curve deals with skewness?
Mean, median & mode
If a distribution has a mean of 1000 and a standard deviation of 100, how many standard deviations is 600 from the mean?
What is the basis for the normal curve?
The fact that the tails of a normal distribution never touch the horizontal axis relates to the following property
If you want to calculate a z score for a test where your raw score was 24, what other information must you know?
Mean and standard deviation
If a distribution has a mean of 25 and a standard deviation of 2, what value would be -4 standard deviations from the mean?
Which of the following is true of z scores that fall above the mean?
They are positive
Under the normal curve, if a z score of 1.65 included 45% of the area above the mean, what percent remains above 1.65 on the X axis?
In a distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what is the probability that a score will be 115 or higher?
z scores which fall above the mean will be ________________.
A score that is three standard deviations above the mean would have a z score of
To calculate a z score, you
Subtract the mean from the raw score and divide this difference by the standard deviation
When we want to infer from a sample to the population, what assumption must be met?
Population is normally distributed
Under the normal curve, approximately what percent of scores fall between -1 and -2 standard deviations below the mean?
What type of standard score has M=0 and SD=1?
This percentage of scores fall on either side of the distribution
Which of the following is a characteristic of the normal curve?
Mean, median, and mode are the same
What is the T score for a z score of -1?
What two scores would divide a normal distribution such that 64.26% of the general population falls within them if the mean is 100 and the standard deviation is 15?
85 to 115
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