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Alberts Cell Bio Chapter 11 (lecture 4)
Terms in this set (33)
Which is not true:
a) membranes provide barrier for polar molecules
b) macromlcls use the same system of import as small mlcls
c) membranes allow cells to regulate concentration
d) essential ions and small mlcls are imported
Uncharged polar amino acids include:
Thr, Tyr, Ser, Glu, Asn
charged polar amino acids (mnemonic)
(Aspartate, Glutamate, Lysine, Arginine
The formation of the alpha helix and beta sheet is driven by __.
the hydrogen bond of the backbone
Which amino acid is rarely in alpha helix and beta sheets?
Proline, because it cuases kinks
In a beta pleated sheet, the side chains are arranged so that ____
they stick out on both sides.
How are covalent bonds involved with folding?
Only one type--disulfide bond between cysteines
How many different structures (alpha...) in one protein?
alpha, beta, all or only one
Movement of molecules across membrane occurs in four ways: Define:
a. Simple diffusion through bilayer
b. "" " " a channel
c. Facilitated diffusion via protein carrier
d. Active transport via protein transporter
e. Which ones use energy?
f. Which move against concentration gradient?
c. --a pore of transmembrane proteins for (ions, hydrophilic mlcls) are opened/closed (NOT against gradient)
d. --transmembrane proteins use ATP to force ions against gradient
How many types of membrane transport proteins?
1) carrier proteins --have moving parts to transport mlcl
2) Channel proteins --form hydrophilic core to allow passive mvmt.
1)Which of these molecules can readily diffuse across membrane? 2) which mlcls less readily diffuse? 3) Which ones require transporter?
a) H2O, urea, glycerol
b) O2, CO2, N2, steroid hormones
c) glucose, sucrose
d) ions (H, Na, HCO3, K, etc)
1) b) hydrophobic
3) c and d
If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what happens?
The water will be removed from cell--crenation
A cell in a hypotonic cell will ___.
The cell swells, and can lyse.
Can a passive transporter make a higher diffusion gradient?
Ion travel through which of the following is usually faster: a channel pore or a transporter?
A channel pore
Passive transport occurs by two ways: __
Channel mediated, or transporter mediated
The system that uses __a__ to __b____ the concentration gradient is __c__.
c. active transport
An electrochemical gradient is called the __a__.
This is created by ____ concentration.
If the substrate outside cell is positive, and the inside of the cell is positive, then the concentration and membrane potential work ___c__each other.
a. membrane potential.
VMax refers to the enzyme being saturated because the substrate is __a_, and the enzyme has max potential.
Km (affinite for solute) is ___b__
b. the amount of substrate required so that rxn velocity is half the max.
Ionic charge differences activate the ____
voltage gated channel.
Coupled carriers cause:
the uphill transport of one mlcl, and the downhill transport of another
Uniports are activated by (three) ___
Voltage, stress, or ligand. (dependant on Km and Vmax)
couple energy of gradient of one mlcl to move another mlcl in same direction
couple energy of gradient of one to transport other mlcl in opposite
Which is wrong about facilitated Na/Glucose cotransport:
a) the Na gradient maintained by pumping Na into cell
b) Na gradient maintained by pumping out of cell
c) Cooperative binding occurs between na and glu
d) both are brought into cell at once
e) a and c
Lactose permease uses ____ ions to drive lactose import.
Regulation of pH occurs by:
a) ATP driven H+ pumps (opposite fx of ATPase)
b) Using Na gradient to pump out H+/pump in HCO3
c) Na/H exchanger to couple influx of Na to H efflux
d)Na driven Cl,HCO3 exchanger (efflux of Cl and H)
d) only a,b,c
e)all of the above
An ABC transporter is one of three types of ____ pumps.
A pump phosphorylating itself during the cycle is a __a_ type pump. The major result is __b__, which allows flux of ___c_ ions.
a) P type pump.
b) conformational change
Order the process of the Na/K ATPase beginning with binding Na:
a) Na is transferred across membrane out of cell
b) K is transferred across membrane into cell
c) Na binds in the cell, and PO4ation changes shape
d) K binds on outside surface, de-PO4ation
c, a, d, b
Osmosis refers to movement of ___a__, while diffusion refers to movement of __b_.
RBCs are lysed when placed in a _a__tonic solution. Their volume is maintained by _b__ pumps.
ABC transporters are usually _a__directional, __b__ the cytoplasm. They get energy from _c__. An example of this is the _d___, expressed in hydrophobic cancer cells.
b. away from
d. Multidrug resistance protein
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