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Intro to Modern Midterm Significance
Terms in this set (14)
Joseph Paxton, The Crystal Palace (1854)
Expository narrative at the world fair/exposition. Building built for first universal exposition in London Hyde Park. Experimental with new materials to create new/nontraditional spaces. Cellular structure of water lily influenced building/combination of iron and glass. Mechanical ingenuity: structure that would actively contribute to its own making- system of design. Building can expedite labor used to make it. "All materiality blends into atmosphere". Outgrowth of crystal palace in modern time- beinial and art basel
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1882)
A night scene, with bar maid, reflection, man, crowd. Left forner with pair of green feet swinging from trapeze- bar for large scale entertainment. Painterly, deep emotion of sadness coupled with boring and apathetic quality in the way her mouth is positioned. Mirror is accurately reflecting something and is also false- giving us a narrative that isn't there. Women in the crowd are observing others and leaning on the bar- play on observing and being observed.
Alphonse Mucha, Posters for Moët & Chandon (1899)
Pair of posters, most likely used separately but work nicely as a pair. Would've been viewed on poster kiosks- mostly text heavy posters. Elongated women, emphasized by the verticality of the posters. Seamless curves, while art nouveau has the tension between vertical lines and curves. Woman on the left is "available"- strap falling off, holding grapes, goddesslike, very free. Woman on right- "imperial" woman, more covered up, no less sexy just more regal. Jut of the hip, curve, crease in the thighs. Juxtaposition b/w free woman/nature and the imperial, regal woman. Art for the mass public/consumption. Female form used to sell liquor.
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
Influence of painting- this wasn't exhibited publicly until the 20s, Picasso only showed in his studio to colleagues, friends. Confrontational nature. 5 nude female figures- Avignon was a prostitute street in Barcelona. Adventure of a collision with art . Man holding back curtain has had a sex change. Folds don't look like drapery but like crystal/glass that has been shattered. Proto-cubism- so many different angles being depicted at once
Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity
in Space (1913)
Most well known of sculptural works of futurism. Title- about physical/visual form, continuity of motion- smooth, seamless integration of motion, vision, and the plastic arts/painting. Medium (sculpture) doesn't lend itself to motion. Bronze material, not lifesize. Uniting the automobile and airplane. Fusion of humanity with new technologies/machines. Sculpture in the round- motion/speed of sculpture changes when you look around it. Face of the sculpture becomes a cross when you look at it from the front. Religious icon as a face- why? Power/meaning of religious icon sublimated by the new man/superman. replacing traditional religious beliefs- we worship the future not the cross.
Gerrit Rietveld, Red-Blue Chair (1917-18)
Unresolved tension in the chair. Colors- primary- red, blue, yellow, black. Composed of simple, horizontal and vertical elements. 2 planes- intersecting but not quit. No evidence of construction- looks like all of these planes are forms assembled themselves together. Accented with yellow end accents, in contrast to Malevich. Side view- arranged in some kind of grid that was then altered/fragmented. Like a rubix cube gone awry. A system of organizing the world.
Marcel Duchamp, The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even (1915-1923)
Man vs. Machine. Object was worked on continuously through 8 years. Layers of dust are visible through the glass- reflects passage of time. Sexuality, play, chance. Authorized reproductions/extra versions. Two large panes of glass held in metal frames, suspended- you are supposed to view it as 3D object. Two panes are supposed to hold a third one together. The "sex cylinder" and draught pistons- cloud being emitted from the bride. The "nine shots" Duchamp throws match sticks at the glass and wherever he shot he drilled a hole. Chocolate grinder- chocolate is an aphrodisiac, represented masturbation to Duchamp. Top half is bride's domain, bottom is the bachelor apparatus. Bride: transformative moment when a girl becomes a bride, sexuality, "the hanged man"- indecision, being stuck or restricted, needs emotional release (sexual frustration). Man/machine- representing the relationship between bride and bachelor as an natural, machinelike relationship. "9 mallic molds"- mallic is like mallic acid which makes apples sour, references original sin, sour apple-- pent up sexual frustration is turning them from pure to impure
Méret Oppenheim, Object (Breakfast in Fur) (1936)
Fur-lined tea cup- liberal use of fur. Represents triangulation of all 3 fetishes- sexual- Freudian red- teacup is concave, spoon is phallic and concave, object that is meant to go to your lips. Commodity- fur covered, mass produced teacup. Tribal- fur- primitivism- these materials take on diff value/life of their own in colonized society. Wasn't constructed well- Oppenheim didn't want to be a crafter, she wanted to do things shottily- have a great piece of art that doesn't have to be technically perfect (like Duchamps weren't technically perfect)
Bruno Taut, Glass Pavilion (1913)
Wants to make architecture that reflect the Crystal Chain German architecture values. Form a society of crystal chain that sends letters back and forth, make a utopian society among group. Little jewel box- its just a pavilion, not monumental size. One dome, staircase, trying to be monumental in small scale form. Gothic dome, housed glasswork from Germany- took glass from region/country and put it on display. Has multiple levels, spiral route via staircase
Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Pavilion (1929)
Theme: CONTROL. How can a building express the social changes occurring in Germany at the time? Tin building and marble terrace and pool. Influenced by geometry, tending towards geometric abstraction. Flat and linear, slab roofs, and glass panels. When you enter, it seems dark and cavernous, plays with perception of space. Outside and inside fluid concept due to the reflection of the walls. Control of the experience. Mies saw glass as unity of the form, every element of the building works together to create an experience more transcendent of Barcelona. Illusion of pristine, perfect modernism and the labor that goes into it.
Dziga Vertov, Man With A Movie Camera (1929)
Theme: MONTAGE. Work vs. leisure. Time running out- tension. Imminent danger, streetcars and trains colliding. Camera becomes the man or the woman- gender dynamic, camera sometimes takes on life of its own- sometimes juxtaposed/super imposed on the life of the human. Infinite man, infinite movie camera. Poster emphasizes human being melding with the camera- kino-eye: eye of the camera, all seeing. Tripod becomes dancing legs of the woman, gender part of film- both genders are productive in society. Repetitive shots of iris opening- opening of camera eye is reflective of human eye opening- a new eye that will document the world. Forward motion, speeding up, sense that things are almost out of control, but saved at the last minute. Montage used to play with time- collapsing linear time to confuse us, truncated human form weightlifting by the shore. Leisure time- being productive. Camera sees all. Old, urban framework surveilled by the new. Man with camera as a monster attacking the city- superimposed through crowds, position of a deity- above govt and society, job to chronicle and reinforce new society
Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30) (1950)
Theme: GESTURE. Lose yourself in the gestures and drips (like a guy coming). Myth of the artist as the singular genius. Hans Namuth's film- jazzlike, improvisational quality to his work, documenting the process, rhythmic movements around canvas. Action is most important part of his work. Greenberg's critiques- art will just spin the wheel over and over, can gestures be replicated? Title suggests rhythmic process. Performance implicit in the image, frees paint from its marriage to representation, freedom of brushstrokes is very American.
Rothko, Seagram Murals (1959)
Series of 30 murals meant to be displayed in Four Seasons restaurant at Seagram blding in Chicago. Glyphs. Mastery of understanding how colors interact. Space created by these murals would have been dark, moody- antithetical to their purpose, not decorative. They can't be background pieces- they demand attention, so he backs out of project. Constructs and reconstructs our relationship to space. Appear in a series to get the point- seeing the colors interacting within the frame and playing off of eachother.
Claude Cahun, What
do you want from me? (1928)
Cahun is female, but gender bending. Uses photography to explore gender identity, sexuality, and representation of human body. Strange, two-headed creature: not siamese, just one person with one head, image is manipulated- taking 2 different negatives and used them to make one print. Bald- head takes on oval, egg-like form, looks almost alien, otherworldly creature. One head is whispering to the other- conversation is implied in the title. Think of female self-representation evolved. Not part of any movement other than thinking about surreal objects. Trying to understand the camera and how it can reproduce reality, how camera can reveal more about subject than dagguerreotype portrait. Like dark, evil alien on right whispering in ear. Reproducing a mental reality using the camera as the medium. Redefining body
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