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95 terms

Bio 141 Lab 4 review

Bio 141 Lab 4 review
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Integumentary system
consists mainly of skin but also includes hair, nails, and skin glands.
protection, regulation of body temperature, excretion of wastes, healing wounds, D3 synthesis, and sense reception
skin functions
sebaceous and sudoriferous
types of glands in skin
sudoriferous glands
sweat glands
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
skin's three main sections
epidermis
outermost layer of epithelial tissue
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum (stratum basale)
the five layers of epidermis
dermis
thicker layer of connective tissue beneath the epidermis that contains blood vessels, nerves, etc.
hypodermis
subcutaneous layer of loose connective tissue beneath the dermis characterized by the presence of adipose tissue
Carotene and Melanin
two pigments which vary in quantity control the color of the skin
carotene
orange-yellow pigment
melanin
dark brown pigment produced by cells called melanocytes. Screen out excessive ultraviolet rays, to protect nucleus and the genetic material of the cell.
1st degree burn
less than 10% of body surface affected, epidermis changed but not destroyed; mild swelling, reddening, pain; injured cells peel off and skin heals without scarring, usually w/in two weeks.
2nd degree burn
less than 15% of body surface for an adult, 10% for a child; epidermis andpart of dermis destroyed. New skin may regenerate; red or mottled appearance, blisters, swelling, wet surface due to plasma loss. Greater pain than third-degree burn (which destroys sensitive nerve endings)
3rd degree burn
includes burns of face, eyes, hands, feet, genitals, and more than 20% of body surface. Prompt medical attention required; all skin layers destroyed, deep tissue destruction. Nerve endings in skin destroyed. Skin cannot be regenerated. Surgery and skin grafts necessary; white or charred appearance, severe loss of body fluids
Rule of Nines
used to estimate the percentage of surface area affected by burns
macule
a localized change in skin color; freckle
wheal
a localized elevation of the overlying epidermis which accumulates fluid in the papillary dermis; hives
papule
a solid elevated area containing epidermal and papilary dermal components; mosquito or other insect bite
nodule
large papule that may extend into the subcutaneous layer; cyst
vesicle
a blister is a papule with a fluid core; bulla; second-degree burn
pustule
a papule-sized lesion filled with pus; acne pimple
erosion
an ulcer may occur following the rupture of a vesicle or pustule. Eroded sites have lost part or all of the normal epidermis; decubitis ulcer
crust
an accumulation of dried sebum, blood, or interstitial fluid over the surface of the epidermis; seborrheic dermatitis, scabs, impetigo
scales
thin plates of cornified cells which form as a result of abnormal keratinization; psoriasis
fissure
a split in the integument that extends through the epidermis and into the dermis; athlete's foot
viral infections
chickenpox, measles, erythema infectiousum (Fifth's disease), Herpes simplex
bacterial infections
impetigo
fungal infections
ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch
parasitic infections
scabies, lice
allergies to
medications, food, environmental causes
abrasion
results from a scrape against a solid object
incision
linear cuts produced by sharp objects
laceration
a jagged, irregular tear in the surface produced by solid impact or by and irregular object
puncture
results when slender, pointed objects pierce the epithelium
avulsion
chunks of tissue are torn away by force
a blood clot is formed which stops external bleeding.
1st step in healing a wound
a scab forms from the dried blood clot
2nd step in healing a wound
phagocytic white blood cells remove damaged tissue and harmful microorganisms
3rd step in healing a wound
epidermal cells multiply under the scab
4th step in healing a wound
cells in the dermis called fibroblasts produce collagenous fibers and form a scar
5th step in healing a wound
dermatology
the medical study of the physiology and pathology of the skin
Rule of Nines
method of estimating extent of skin burns
dermatitis
inflammation of the skin
scab
a blood clot that forms at the surface of a wound to the skin
contusion
a bruise causing bleeding in the dermis (black and blue marks)
urticaria
hives
carotene
yellow pigment
melanin
dark pigment produced by specialized skin cells called melanocytes
sebaceous
oil glands connected to hair follicles that function to lubricate and protect
sebum
oily secretion
sudoriferous
sweat glands (apocrine and merocrine)
apocrine
large sweat glands (armpits, genital area)
merocrine or eccrine
small sweat glands (palms, fingers, soles)
cerumen
ear wax
pacinian corpuscles
receptors for deep pressure
meissner's corpuscles
corpuscles of touch, sensitive touch receptors
skeletal system
made up of bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments; provides protection, support, and movement for the body.
red bone marrow
responsible for the production of blood cells
yellow bone marrow
stores lipids
bones
storage of calcium and phosphate
206
number of bones in the adult skeleton
axial skeleton
pertains to the bones of the body (head and thorax)
appendicular skeleton
refers to the extremities (arms and legs)
ligaments
attach bone to bone
tendons
attach bone to muscle
long bone, short bone, flat bone, irregular bone, sesamoid bone, sutural bone
major classification of bones
femur
example of long bone
carpal
example of short bone
skull bones
example of flat bone
spinal vertebrae
example of irregular bone
patella
example of sesamoid bone
between skull bones
example of sutural bone
epiphysis
the ends of the bone (head)
diaphysis
the long, hollow shaft of the bone
metphysis
the flared region where the epiphysis and diaphysis meet
compact bone
dense and relatively solid bone
spongy bone
forms an open network of struts and plates (contains red marrow)
process
a projection or bump
ramus
angle of bone
trochanter
very large, rough, rounded projection (present only in femur)
tuberosity
large (maller than trochanter, rough rounded projection- humerous
tubercle
small, rough, rounded projection
crest
prominent projection or ridge
line
narrow, low ridge
spine
pointed process
head
expanded, rounded surface at end of bone
condyle
large, convex projection that usually contacts another bone
trochlea
grooved surface shaped like a pulley
facet
small smooth, flat surface
fossa
shallow depression or concavity
foramen
natural opening on a bone surface for nerves and/or blood vessels
fissure
deep cleft between adjacent parts of bone
meatus
canal
sinus or antrum
hollow space within bone