AP Euro Ch. 13 and 14
Terms in this set (99)
1. Evaluate the evolution of the Dutch Nation in the 17/18th Century. Include wars, rulers and the short and long term impact on Europe.
emerged as a nation after revolting against Spain in 1572;involved in a series of naval wars with England;1672, the French armies of Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands and Prince William III of Orange rallied the Dutch and led the entire European coalition against France; House of Orange- great amount of power during the struggle with Louis XIV of France;William III would obtain dominant leadership; died in 1702, the wars with France ended in 1714; result, they reverted to their republican structures;religious toleration, which led to a growing population;Calvinist Reformed Church was the official church of the nation;haven for Jews, Roman Catholics, and Protestants.
What was the short term and long term impact of the Dutch Revolution?
short term impact-political power passed into the hands of wealthy merchants; long term impact-religious toleration helped create a cosmopolitan society that promoted commerce.
what was the Dutch Nation's political structure?
didn't have a monarchy, they had a republic; Each of the provinces had authority and the central government included the States General-Holland dominated;House of Orange which had a great amount of power during the struggle with Louis XIV of France; after William III-reverted back to republican structure
2. What was the urban and new economic prosperity of the Dutch state?
built on the foundations of the high urban consolidation, transformed agriculture, extensive trade and finance, and an overseas commercial empire;Europe's leading commercial power during most of the 17th century; Amsterdam- Europe's financial center; had the largest fleet in the world - 10,000 ships; Dutch replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe. The Amsterdam Exchange bank was founded in 1609; Dutch East Indies company displaced the Portuguese; gained control of the spice trade in the East Indies; textiles and dried fish
3. What were the two models of monarchy that emerged in the 17th Century.
parliamentary monarchy- England; political absolutism- France
the form of limited or constitutional monarchy set up in Britain after the Glorious Revolution of 1689;the monarch was subject to the law and ruled by the consent of parliament
a strong centralized continental monarchy that attempted to make royal power dominant over aristocracies and other regional authorities
4. What was the Constitutional Crisis in England under James I?
inherited a large royal debt and a fiercely divided the church;In place of parliamentary approved revenues, James developed other sources of income, largely by levying new custom duties as impositions;
James's court became a center of scandal and corruption; governed by favorites.
James's foreign policy roused further opposition and doubt about his Protestant loyalty; failed efforts to arrange a marriage between his son Charles and Spanish princess, and then Charles's marriage in 1625 to Henrietta Marie , the Catholic Daughter of Henry IV of France, further increased religious concern; went to war with Spain
5. Who was Charles I and did his ruling of England differ than his fathers? Explain your answer.
Yes, but he was a little more successful;He still challenged local political influence of nobles and landowners, parliament; levied new tariffs and duties and imprisoned those who refused to pay their taxes. He also dissolved Parliament twice
6. How and why did the puritans begin to gain control in England's Parliament?
became sharply divided over religion;wanted to abolish bishops and the Book of Common Prayer, religious conservatives wanted to preserve the Church of England in its current form;October of 1641 when Parliament was asked to raise funds for an army to stop a rebellion in Scotland; argued that Charles should not be trusted with an army and that they should be in charge of the English forces.
What was the impact of the puritans gaining control on England's Parliament on Charles I and England?
Charles to invade Parliament in 1642.;caused civil war to engulf England, for the next four years
7. Explain the Long Parliament.
convened in November 1640- the landowners and merchant classes in Parliament had resented the king's financial measure and paternalistic rule;resented his religious policies and didn't trust his Catholic wife's influence; executed his two chief ministers and abolished the king's courts which had become tools of absolutism.
8. How did the Parliament win its victory against Charlies I? What were the short and long term impacts to England?
an alliance with Scotland in 1643 that committed Parliament to a Presbyterian system of church government;reorganization of the parliamentary army under Oliver Cromwell;was defeated militarily by June 1645, but Charles I tried to take advantage of divisions within Parliament;Cromwell and his army foiled him.
What were the short and long term impacts of the Parliament wining against Charles I to England?
A short term impact- Cromwell dominated the English Puritan republic and his rule was more like a military dictatorship. A long term impact (for 11 years- that England became an official Puritan republic.
9. Analyze why the Monarchy was restored in England.
Cromwell had tried something else, but it didn't work out. The people felt the need to bring back the Stuart dynasty; Parliament thought they could resolve the issues concerning the relationship between the king and Parliament, so thought it was safe for them to go back to a monarchy.
10. How did Charles II treat Catholics in England? What was the reaction of the Parliament to his actions?
secretly sympathetic to Catholics and favored religious toleration- ultra-royalists in Parliament in 1661-1665 excluded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and Independents from the official religious and political life of the nation;Charles issued a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672, suspending all laws against Catholics and non- Anglican Protestants, Parliament's reaction was to refuse to fund the war until Charles rescinded the measure
11. What was the Glorious Revolution? Please include all important people, events and the outcome of the Revolution on England.
James II who was Catholic repealed the Test Act and permitted free worship;represented a direct royal attack on the local authority of nobles, landowners, and the church; The English hoped that James would be succeeded by Mary, his eldest Protestant daughter- the wife of William III of Orange;parliamentary opposition invited William III to invade England; William arrived with his army in November 1688- welcomed with popular support of the people; when James fled to France and parliament in 1689, proclaimed William III and Mary II the new monarchs, completed I the Glorious Revolution. Parliament required them to accept the Bill of Rights and they did-England's monarchs would be subject law and would rule by consent of Parliament- to be called into session every three years
12. Who was Sir Robert Walpole and how did he help establish George I as the new King of England?
helped run the government and helped fix the political situation after 1715; 1721-1742 and was based on royal support, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his control of government patronage; maintained peace abroad;helped George I establish England as a world power.
13. Explain how Louis XIV began to garner power as the new young King of France
decided that he would concentrate unprecedented authority in his monarchy, but do it subtly; didn't appoint a single chief minister. Soon, he ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, the army, domestic administration, and economic regulations;made sure that the nobility and other major social groups would benefit from the growth of his own authority; never tried to abolish their institutions or limit their local authority.
14. What role did Versailles play in creating an image of an Absolute Monarchy?
played the image of an Absolute Monarchy; was the seat of power for Louis XIV; designed to be a visible symbol of Louis XIV's absolute power and greatness; showed his dominance over the nobles; Versailles was the place the nobles had to live and maintain it.
15. Who developed the idea of King by Divine Right?
Louis's devout tutor, the political theorist Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet developed this idea; examples of Old Testament rulers;only God could judge the king; kings could not be bound to the dictates of mere nobles and parliaments.
17. What role did the military and early wars play in the development of King Louis XIV's rule?
helped solidify his rule by showing his power to the other countries;secured France's borders and was in the process of making France a global power by inheriting the Spanish Habsburg possessions in the New World and in Europe;resulted in France gaining more territory.
18. Explain who the Jansenists are and why they were suppressed.
were people who opposed the theology and the political influence of the Jesuits; followed the teachings of St. Augustine; opposed Jesuit teachings about free will; were suppressed because they had been involved in the Fronde and the pope declared them heretical and condemned Jansenist teachings
19. Explain the Revocation of the Edict of Nance and on France and Europe.
Louis wanted to have one faith;in 1685;closed Protestant churches and ordered all Protestant children to be baptized as Catholics; 200,000 Huguenots fled to England, the Dutch Republic, Protestant Germany states, and the New World; France losing many skilled workers and business leaders, while the rest of Europe gained valuable people; set the enviornment for the French Revolution
20. Evaluate the League of Augsburg and the Nine Years' War. What were the short and long term impacts on France and Europe?
a new defensive coalition formed against King Louis XIV; England, Spain, Sweden, the United Provinces, and the major German states; had the support of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I. Between 1689-1697, the League and France battled each other in the Nine Years' War; The Nine Years' War ended with Peace of Ryswick(1697), which ended the war, secured Holland's borders and thwarted Louis's expansion into Germany.
21. Why did the War of Spanish Succession occur?
1700, the balance of power was once again threatened when the childless king of Spain, Charles II, died. Charles left the Spanish throne and its huge overseas empire to Louis's 17 year old grandson, Philip of Anjou'Europe feared that Louis could create a universal monarchy-upset the balance of power; formed a Grand Alliance that included England, Holland, Austria, Brandenburg, and the Italian duchy of Savoy; a costly struggle that left France battered and weakened; war's huge debts played a key role in worsening financial and social tensions- later erupt in the French Revolutions; ended by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713-created a new balance of power that preserved peace of 30 years.
what was the Treaty of Utrecht and the War of Spanish Succesion's impact on France?
treaty- France gains- Louis's grandson, Philip V, was allowed to remain king of Spain as long as the thrones of Spain and France didn't unite and France was allowed to retain all of Alsace
what was the Treaty of Utrecht and the War of Spanish Succesion's impact on England?
England gained valuable Spanish naval base, the slave trade from Spain, and valuable French colonies in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland
what was the Treaty of Utrecht and the War of Spanish Succesion's impact on Austria?
gained the Spanish Netherlands or Beldiu and Naples, Milan, and Sardinia.
what was the Treaty of Utrecht and the War of Spanish Succesion's impact on the Duke of Savoy and the elector of brandenburg?
savoy-received Sicily and the title of king; Elector of Brandenburg was recognized as king of Prussia.
22. Who was John Law?
He was the regent of France's (the Duke of Orleans) fellow gambler and a Scottish mathematician;believed an increase in the paper-money supply would stimulate France's economic recovery;established a bank in Paris that issued paper money
what was the Mississippi Company?
the monopoly that John Law organized on trading privileges with the French colony of Louisiana; took over the management of the French national debt. When people sought to exchange their money for gold, the bank lacked enough gold to redeem all the paper money brought to it. All gold payments were halted in France and Law fled the country in 1720;brought disgrace
23. Who was the Duke of Orleans and how did he renew his authority of the Parliaments?
the regent to France; renewed his power by setting up a system of councils where nobles would serve along with bureaucrats. But the nobles were used to doing nothing- this experiment failed; reinstituted the full power of the Parlement of Paris to allow and disallow laws; succeeded in identifying their authority and resistance to the monarchy with wider public opinion;became centers for aristocratic and popular resistance to royal authority.
Include the political development of Poland.
In 1660, the king of Poland was elected by Polish nobles who severely restricted his power. The Polish nobles had a central legislative body-Sejm or diet. But action required unanimous consent of each aristocratic member, but they were always divided; were very weak politically
Include the economic development of Poland.
The nobles couldn't get along, so decisions were never made;led to Poland being very politically weak. The nobles excluded representatives from corporate bodies, such as the towns.
Include the social development of Poland.
Because the government suppressed the people from corporate bodies, there was not a lot of economic activity going on
Include the political development of the Habsburg Empire.
suffered a series of setbacks after the 30 Years War, but in 1648, the Habsburg family retained the title of HRE; power of emperor depended less on army and more on cooperation from various political bodies- large German units and smaller German cities or principalities; began to consolidate power and influence within their hereditary possession outside their empire; many territories were rule by a different title- king, archduke, duke; King Leopold, Joseph, Charles VI and Maria Theresa
Include the social development of the Habsburg Empire.
embraced a large number of ethnic groups who were unified only by the Catholic faith and their loyalty to the Habsburg dynasty.
Include the economic development of the Habsburg Empire.
gained lot of new land and their empire was no made up of Austria, Bohemia, Naples, Sardinia, Milan and the Netherlands
Include the political development of Prussia and the Hohenzollerns.
started with Brandenburg;the ruler was one of the 7 princes who elected the HRE; Hohenzollern family became the hereditary rulers of Brandenburg in 1417; inherited more land and contained a big population; then Frederick William forged the Hohenzollern territories into a strong power; used an army and it enabled him to help with European balance of power politics; also received loyalty of the Junkers, landowners; Junkers received full power over the serfs; Frederick William I- determined to build a powerful army; had the continent's 3rd or 4th largest army; military state
Include the social development of Prussia and the Hohenzollerns.
military life socially for everyone. Led by the Junkers, the officer corps became the most prestigious class in Prussia.
Include the economic development of Prussia and the Hohenzollerns.
prospered because they had to make weapons and armor for the soldiers
25. Analyze the rise of Russia and the Romanov Dynasty as a European power in the 17th Century.
started with Michael Romanov and his two successors- brought stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to Russia, But the country still remained impoverished. Peter the Great 1789-1825- recognized that Russia had fallen behind western Europe, visited Holland and vowed to transform Russia into a great power- expanding Russia's army and constructing a new navy; improved Russian agriculture by introducing the potato, strengthened the Russian economy by importing skilled workers;liberated Russia women by allowing them to appear in public without veils;forced nobles to shave off their traditional long beards; had a war with Sweden, the Great Northern War that lasted from 1700-1721. Russia ultimately won the war and became a dominant power on the Baltic Sea; Peter the Great-St. Petersburg and was a symbol of a new and more powerful Russia;required every noble to serve in the army or in the civil administration. Serfs and peasants did not benefit from Peter the great's rule. He successfully transformed Russia into a great power.
26. What was the importance and impact of the Ottoman Empire on Europe? Make sure you include the territories that emerge in Europe as the Empire begins to decline.
Europeans had found themselves in frequent conflict with this empire in the Mediterranean, the Balkans, around the black sea, along the borders of Ruddian and far west as Vienna;ranged from Baghdad eastward across the Arabian peninsula, Anatolia, the Balkan peninsula, and across the north Africa from Egypt to algier, the ottoman Empire was the largest and most stable political entity to arise in or near Europe following the collapse of the roman empire; hungary was a territory of Europe
27. In what ways did the Ottoman Empire recognize religious tolerance in its Empire?
letting other people practice their religions in their empire;drawbacks- had to be second-class citizens, unable to rise in the service of the empire; had to pay a special poll tax, could not serve in the military, and were prohibited from wearing colors; residences and places of worship could not be larger than a Muslims.
28. How did the Empire establish government that rule from Vienna to Yemen and Algeria to Persia?
established a government by separating itself from powerful families and recruiting military leaders and administrative officers from groups whom the sultan would be loyal to them; had a strong army made up of loyal 'slaves' of the sultan; millets
29. What was the role of the Ulama and religious authority in the Empire?
to dominate Ottoman religious institutions and also schools and courts of law; sultan and his administrative officials would consult the Ulama- their policies and the behavior of their subjects accorded to the Qur'an; urged the sultans to have a traditional life, even with technology advancing.
30. What events marked the ending of expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Europe?
first event- tried to invade Vienna in 1683, but didn't work,was a symptom of deeper decline; power struggle within the empire between the vizier and the sultan; local elites began to assert their own influence;fell behind in technology because they thought they were superior; in the 1690's, the Ottomans unsuccessfully fought a league of European states. In 1699, the Treaty of Carlowitz required the Ottomans to surrender significant territory in the heart of their empire, Hungary, to the Habsburgs
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch spice-trade vehicle that eventually dominated the spice-trading world and even started producing the spice themselves
Petition of Right
a document produced by Parliament during the time of Charles I that required of him henceforth that there should be no forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, that no freeman should be imprisoned with due cause, and that troops should not be billeted in private homes
Charles I's chief adviser who imposed strict efficiency and administrative centralization in the government and exploited every legal fund-raising device, enforcing previously neglected laws and extending existing taxes into new areas in order to allow Charles to rule without renegotiating financial arrangements with Parliament
Archbishop William Laud
Charles I's high church authority who was against the opposition of both the Puritans and the Presbyterians and tried to impose on Scotland the English episcopal system and a prayer building almost identical to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer
The Short Parliament
a Parliament Charles reconvened for about a month or two to help fund the war with the rebellion in Scotland, but was shortly dissolved after demanding the king readdress a long list of political and religious grievances
gave Parliament the authority to raise an army of its own
reorganized the parliamentary system and after defeating Charles I, took control in a military dictatorship type fashion with a radically Protestant army
form of government where Puritans dominated the government and looked to purify the Episcopalian church of Catholicism
this series of laws passed by ultra-royalists in Parliament between 1661 and 1665 excluded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and Independents from the official religious and political life of the nation
Treaty of Dover
in 1670, this treaty allied England and France against the Dutch, their chief commercial competitor, in which Charles pledged to announce his conversion to Catholicism as soon as conditions in England permitted this to happen
Louis XIV's chief minister who attempted to impose direct royal administration on France and also circumscribed many of the political privileges Henry IV had extended to French Protestants in the Edict of Nantes
attempted to do many of the same things Richelieu did, both their attempts provoked a series of widespread rebellions among French nobles
A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652
heir to the French throne
when the banks ran out of gold as smart investors began to switch their paper money for gold, it halted gold payments and this fiasco brought disgrace on the government that had sponsored John Law, who had caused the whole thing and fled
the legislative assembly of the Polish nobility; diet
legal basis negotiated by the Emperor Charles VI for the Habsburg succession through his daughter Maria Therea
the noble landlords of Prussia
Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus's publication that challenged the Ptolemaic picture in the most conservative manner possible, changing it from geocentric to heliocentric, but retaining many aspects of the Ptolemaic model but also explained retrograde motion as an optical illusions and stated that farther away planets took longer to revolve
Dante's work that showed astronomy that was geocentric and had many of the characteristics of the Ptolemaic system
- the belief that the universe is centered around the earth
Danish astronomer that believed in a geocentric system, but thought that Venus and Mercury revolved around the sun while the sun revolved around the earth, he constructed many scientific instruments and collected a lot of astronomical data that his successors could work from
- the idea that nature worked together and functioned in such a way that it was almost one big contraption, like a clock
scientific method in which generalizations are derived from data gained from empirical observations
Letters Concerning Toleration
John Locke's defense of religious toleration, saying Christian toleration was the answer to avoiding previous religious conflicts in the future and that government should preserve property and not make religious decisions
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke's explanation of basic human thought that portrayed a person's mind at birth as a blank tablet whose content would be determined by sense experience and had early visions of behaviorism
- Hobbes' work that was filled with caustic remarks about the kind of learning then dominating schools and universities and provided a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority
the religious thought associated with such deducing of religious conclusions from nature and was a reconciliation of science and faith that allowed the new physics and astronomy to spread rapidly in England
31. Explain and evaluate the Ptolemaic System.
based on mathematical calculations relating to astronomy; the earth was the center of the universe; pre-Copernican explanation of the universe that originated in the ancient world.
32. What is meant by Copernicus's Universe?
a heliocentric, or sun-centered, model of the universe that still contained epicycles like Ptolemy's;the retrograde motion of the planets were now explained as a result of an optical illusion that arose because people were observing them from earth, which was itself moving;farther away planets took longer to make a full revolution.
33. What were the three theories that Kepler published in 1609? Explain why they were important.
suggested that planets move in elliptical orbits, which was important because previous belief had been that their movement was in epicycles;explains the speed with which planets move, or retrograde motion, which had not been done before. And he also related the movement of each planet to other planets as well, which had not been suggested or seen before
34. Define the concept of universe subject to mathematical laws.
the universe was strictly the way it was because of a series of mathematical laws that provided regularity and structure in nature;gave nature a harder and calculating feel than those who believed nature just happened.
35. What is The Principia and why did Isaac Newton write it?
Newton's explanation of gravity and retrograde motion; wrote it to publish his discovery of gravity and inertia; the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity, and that this gave the planets their orderly manner
36. Evaluate the idea of mechanism and how it influenced the new science.
the idea that nature was made up of many components that functioned together like a machine, somewhat like a clock;influenced science- now people could see the utility and usefulness in nature instead of divine inspiration, allows people to use the processes of nature
37. Explain the Empirical Method and how it changed the study of Science.
the method of using experiment and observation derived from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory or philosophy of knowledge; changed the study of science because it challenged old scientific theories and called them to be tested;caused people to be more critical of things that were just said;caused more evidence to be brought into play to back things up.
38. Why did Bacon believe that expanding natural knowledge was important?
thought science should be a collective enterprise and that every average European should have confidence in themselves and their own abilities rather than in the people and methods of the past, championing innovation and change
39. Analyze the idea of Rational Deduction and how did it influence science in the short and long term?
reasoning from general principle to arrive at specific facts; influenced science short term because it soon lost favor to scientific induction, and was not in use for long; during its time, Descartes reasoned that human beings could fully comprehend the world and it stressed the importance of God and his provision of clear and distinct ideas; affected science long term because it influence philosophers from his time to the present.
40. How did scientific thought influence political philosophy in the 17th Century? Evaluate Thomas Hobbs
wrote influential works such as the Leviathan, whose aim was the justify a strong central political authority. In this, Hobbes demonstrated his thoughts that human was guided by their bare sensation and regarded all human motivation as egotistical and intended to increase pleasure while minimizing pain; a major apologist for absolute government and suggested that only a sovereign common-wealth established by a contract between the ruler and the ruled could enable human beings to meet those needs by limiting their free exercise
40. How did scientific thought influence political philosophy in the 17th Century? Evaluate John Locke
was the defended of moderate liberty and toleration; believed people to be creatures of reason and goodwill and that their freedoms should be provided; suggested that the government be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed; argued that absolute monarchs and imposing religious views led to conflict, like it had in the past, and that a limited government and religious toleration was an answer to solving these problems, both in Second Treatise of Government and Letter Concerning Toleration. In his work, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, gave insight into the human mind, saying that we are born with a blank tablet and it is filled with sense experiences, demonstrating early views of behaviorism
41. Evaluate how the idea of Natural Knowledge changed the social ideals of the 17th Century and provide the foundation for the Enlightenment of the 18th Century
changed the social ideals of the 17th century-it opposed the traditional ideas of Scholasticism and Aristotelianism; proponents of the time also were aggressive in their criticisms of the current education because they used these traditional ways. Because of the slowness in the assimilation of new science into education, however, institutions of sharing were established throughout Europe to meet, exchange ideas, and debate them with experiments. These institutions brought in people of many different classes, so everyone had a say and look into the new sciences. However, the people who were a part of the societies established became very important and regarded themselves as champions of many new science ideas. This group became the social basis for the Enlightenment.
42. Evaluate the women of the Scientific Revolution.
did not have the social space to acquire a role of importance during that time; Few to no women were allowed in universities and the societies of science; Margaret Cavendish- a well-educated woman who knew many scientific philosophers;understood the new science, quarreled with the ideas of Descartes and Hobbes, and criticized the Royal Society for being more interested in novel scientific instruments than in solving practical problems; only woman allowed the visit a meeting of the Royal Society. Maria Cunitz- published a book on astronomy that was at first accredited to her husband. Many others worked with their husbands, like Elisabetha and Johannes Hevelius and Maria Winkelmann and Gottfried Kirch. Winkelmann and her husband did a lot in the astronomy field together, and he was the Berlin Academy of Science's official astronomer. Some books were directed at helping women gain scientific knowledge, and Emilie du Chatelet was an important figure in scientific literature for her aiding Voltaire with mathematical understanding and translating the Principia into French.
43. How did the New Science impact religious faith? (3 ways)
certain theories and discoveries did not agree with biblical statements about the heavens. there was the issue of deciding if church authorities or natural philosophers would decide conflicts. the new science seemed to replace a universe of spiritual meaning and significance with a purely materialistic one. Yet philosophers thought their ideas were supportive of religious faith, as it just brought deeper knowledge into the divine.
44. Who is Blaise Pascal and what were his views on Reason and Faith?
a French mathematician and a physical scientist. He refuted both dogmatism, arguing that human nature was automatically sinful, and skepticism, saying that atheists and deists overestimated reason. He believed that reason was too weak to solve problems compared to God's divine grace and knowledge.
45. Evaluate the English point of view and the New Science?
supported religious views and faith; pointed to the fact that nature and Scripture had the same author, and therefore could not conflict with each other. Each new scientific development led people to understand their God better through nature. Rational and mathematical thinking led people to believe in a rational God. Overall, people thought God made this divine plan in which humans would understand more and more and eventually use this understanding to better the earth.
46. Why did witch hunts continue during the new scientific age?
because of the religious divisions going on at the time as well; People noticed the loss of their protection against the devil and his demons, so they felt the need to go out and find witches themselves and get rid of them. Both political and religious powers encouraged these hunts as well, as they were happy to get rid of any other competition for the loyalty of their subjects; believed witches believed first of all because they thought magic existed
What was the clergy's role in witch hunts?
Many of the sacraments seemed like magical feats, not to mention exorcism, but theologians argued that these were God-given powers that were practiced within the Church. Witches were practicing magic against the Church on behalf of the devil, which was evil in villagers' eyes.
What was the village's role in witch hunts?
Origins of villages-Many folkloric beliefs were brought back up and people found comfort and hope in magical people because of natural disasters and calamities. These people had authority, and single, widowed women were likely to strike out and say they had this authority as well; Misogyny also fueled the witch hunts. They were inspired by sexual fear and male hatred of strong women and it occurred at a time when women were breaking out from male control. Most of the witches were widows, who were known to be unhappy and strike out, midwives, whose work made them unpopular with childbirth, and healers and herbalists, who were targeted because of their spiritual power over commoners because of their healing abilities.
47. What events lead to the ending of witch hunts?
emergence of a more scientific point of view, which suggested mind and matter as two different things, was not compatible with the art of magic; advances in medicine, the rise in insurance companies, and the availability in lawyers also help give people greater physical security. Also, the witch hunts began to get out of hand and alleged witches would give names of respected people when being tortured, which interested no one.
48. Explain how the New Sciences impacted the Arts.
because of the rise of baroque art. Baroque painters depicted their subjects in a thoroughly naturalistic, rather than an idealized, manner which paralleled the interest in natural knowledge associated with the rise of the new science and the deeper understanding of human anatomy that was achieved during this period.
role of the Midwife in Europe.
Elderly or widowed women of the lower social classes became midwives in early modern Europe. The authorities regulated the practice of midwifery by disallowing them from starting guilds to protect their trade, pass on their skills, or stabilize their incomes and they had power in licensing midwives and appointing upper-class women, known as honorable women, to supervise them. Male professionals gradually replaced midwives in delivering babies because civil and medical authorities began to demand that people who delivered children be trained as doctors in medical school, something women could not do until late nineteenth century, and the use of forceps was something way out of a woman's league, which men knew how to use.
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