TAMU SOCI 205 moore fall2022

Gidden's concept of structuration is:
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 100
Terms in this set (100)
a) a stable arrangement of institutions resources whereby human beings in a society interact & live together.
b) a collection of agents who have the ability to make choices.

c) the recursive relationship between agents (people) and the social structure
d) a theoretical frame that explains how agents (people) work collectively to produce infrastructure for a given society.

In the 1950s & 60s a large segment of the population in the U.S. came together to protest laws that were racist & sexist. These collective actions led to the passage of major civil rights legislation including the 1964 Civl Rights Act, which changed the legal and social structure of U.S. society. This is best described as an example of:
Scientific research on epigenetics, and the connection between nature vs. nurture, was conducted using experiments on rats and they found that baby rats with good mothers (high levels of licking by rat mothers on rat babies) and baby rats with bad mothers (low levels of licking by rat mothers on rat babies) whhen they grew up and had babies became the same type of mothers to their babies. But, when babies were switched so the babies with good mothers are switched to bad mothers, and babies with bad mothers were switched to the good mothers, the babies tended to become like the mothers they were raised with, not the mother's they were born to. This suggested the importance of nurture over nature; but also when they tested the biology of the switched babies, they found that the babies who were switched also had a change in their genetic makeup so that their genetics matched the mothers they were raised with; the nurturing (or lack of nurturing) by rat mothers actually effected the genetic makeup of the babies.
According to the reading published by the National Academy of Sciences on the subject of methods and values in science, the National Academy of Sciences said:a) Good scientific research must be completely impartial and individual values should be removed from scientific research. b) Good scientists should communicate the goals of their research with their research subjects c) Recognizing that huamn beings have normal values and biases, good scientists should endeavor to understand how their values may influence their research and try to eliminate bias from influencing their method or analysis. d) None of the above CThe U.S. flag is an example of:a) material culture b) nonmaterial culture c) both a& b d) None of the above COf the top 100 grossing films of 2018, _________ of the writers were male.A) 50percent B) 68 percent C) 74 percent D) 85 percent DIn the theory of structuration, culture and socialization intervene in a way that:a) causes people to act in a way that tends to reproduce the structure as it is. b) causes people to act in a way that tends to change the social structure c) causes people to reject social structure and form counter-cultures d) cuture and socialization are not related to structuration. ASuzanne Kessler's research on inter-sexed infants found that from approximately the 1970s-the present, doctors made decisions about surgically altering inter-sexed children to fit into the sex binary based primarily upon a medical determination that the infant could develop in puberty to have _____________________________.a) the likelihood of a functioning womb that would permit child birth. b) the likelihood that they will develop an average sized or larger penis. c) the likelihood that they will develop breasts d) none of the above BIn the top 100 grossing films of 2017, those with a female lead made _________ more money than those with a male lead.A) 15.8 percent B) 23.5 percent C) 38.1 percent D) Films with female leads did not make more than films with male leads CSpecifically defining how you will measure each variable (or concept) in your research is called __________ your research variables.a) operationalizing b) researching c) structuring d) hypothesizing AAccording to Arlie Hoschild's ethnographic research, even when husbands and wives are both employed outside of the home, the bulk of the domestic responsibilities fall on women. The sociological term for this is ______.a) dual labor market b) gender segregation c) the second shift d) confirmation bias CJennifer Pierce's research on gender dynamics in law firms found that when women entered the male dominated job of trial lawyers, they were treated the same way as male trial lawyers and were rewarded for being forceful and tough in trial arguments.FalseIn Bonnie Thorne's research on boys and girls in school she found:a) boys were considered more "contaminating" than girls in "cootie contacts" b) boys occupied more playground space, nearly 2/3rds of the playground, than girls c) girls were called on more to answer math and logic problems in class d) all of the above BIn Suzanne Kesler's research on inter-sexed babies, she discovered that approximately _________ of babies are born inter-sexed.a) .5% b) 2% c) 3.8% d) 5% BGeena Davis conducted research on the gender dynamics of G-rated (children's) movies and by employing computer technology to evaluate the top 100 grossing films in 2018 she discovered that male lead characters received ___________ of screen time as female leads.a) the same amount b) twice as much c) three times as much d) ten times as much BThe Trevor Project conducted a study and found that ________ of LGBTQ middle or highschool students reported being bullied, either in person or electronically in the past year.a) 32.8% b) 52% c) 63.3% d) 74% BAccording to the American Psychological Association (APA) fact sheet on gender identities, it is difficult to estimate the exact number of people who identify as non-binary, because research on sex and gender has not included non-binary as a response category.TrueAlthough social media has created a new method of sharing information, according to the documentary After Truth, social media is not a main cause of the increasing spread of fake news.FalseMarx suggested that members of the Capitalist class were able to hold power over the larger worker class without violence or threat of violence because they control:a) the means of production b) the income tax c) the Gini coefficient d) the ideology DMost of the family heirs featured in the film Born Rich required their children to work in low level positions in the family businesses before they were able to inherit family money.FalseIn The Broken Ladder, Keith Payne suggests that for the majority of individuals, their subjective perception of their own status aligns with their objective measures of status like income, level of education, and job status.FalseExamining gender in higher education, women are not under-represented in attendance or graduation rates compared to men; however, examiniing race, while African American and Latinx people are not under-represented in attendance rates, they are under-represented in graduation rates compared to whites.FalseIn 2018 the top 1% of earners in the United States earned on average ________ more than the bottom 90% of earners.a) 9 times b) 26 times c) 39 times d) 126 times CAccording to the film Race the Power of an Illusion, the fact that genetic diseases like sickle cell disease are found disparately in different groups is BEST explained by:a) Racial differences b) Geography c) African ancestry d) all of the above BIn the case of U.S. v. Thind, the U.S. Supreme Court held that:a) The legal definition of white was synonymous with the term Caucasian b) The legal definition of white was a term of common usage to be defined by the common man's understanding c) Racial restrictions for citizenship are in violation of the U.S. Constitution d) Legally African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. and therefore could not sue in Federal Court BThe Supreme Court cases of Ozawa v. U.S. and U.S. v. Thind were both cases that determined the legal definition of whiteness, and in both cases the Court concluded that "white" was legally the same as "a person of the Caucasian race".FalseUntil the 18th century, race was generally a concept used in conjunction with family or clan ties, and was not based upon physical characteristics as it is today.TrueRoger is an African American student at Princeton University. He is majoring in Engineering, and when asked to complete an exam of complex mathematical problems, he performs better on the exam when he is told that the exam is a test of the validity of the individual questions, as opposed to a test measuring his math competency. This is probably an example of a:a) controlling image b) racial constructionism c) stereotype threat d) crainiology CAccording to Marxist theory, the class status of individuals in capitalist societies is defined by:a) the income and wealth of individuals in society b) the relationship of individuals to the social hierarchy and ideology c) an individual's ownership (or lack of ownership) of the means of production in a society d) an individuals ownership (or lack of ownership) of land in a society CAccording to Eduardo Bonilla-Silva's discussion in the film Race the Power of an Illusion, the assimilation "melting pot" did not include:a) Irish and Germans b) Greek and Syrian c) Blacks and Chinese d) all of the above CAccording to Keith Payne, researchers in the U.S. conducted a study on perceptions of inequality in the United States by showing them two charts on wealth inequality; one chart was based upon the actual wealth distribution in the United States, the other was based upon the wealth distribution in Sweden. They then asked the research subjects to select the society in which they would like to live if they were randomly assigned to end up in an economic status in that society. The researchers found that:a) both men and women selected the Swedish model by more than 90% b) 89% of people who made six figure salaries selected the Swedish model c) 90% of self-identified Republicans chose the Swedish model d) all of the above DIn 1790 the first Congress of the United States restricted naturalization to only "free white persons", and this restriction to naturalized citizenship to white persons was in effect in U.S. law until 1927.FalseThe rule of hypo-descent, commonly referred to as the one-drop rule, was a law that the United states inherited from British Common law and was not unique to the United States.falseClaude Steele describes a story of New York Times columnist Brent Staples, and African American man who described being a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago, and realizing that when he was walking at night white people were in fear of him because of racial stereotypes about African American men in that Chicago community. Staples says that he began whistling classical music like Vivaldi's Four Seasons to make white people feel more comfortable as they passed him on the street.TrueThe vast majority of those in the physical and social sciences have concluded that race is socially constructed, not biological, because:a) The physical characteristics we associate with race are arbitrary b) The categories we think of as racial groups change over time and are different in different societies even at one specific historical moment c) There is less differentiation between different so-called racial groups than within so-called racial groups. d) all of the above DIn the video Race the Power of an Illusion, Episode 2, they note that in Thomas Jefferson's book Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson explained that Blacks were inferior to whites in part because he needed to justify his ownership of slaves under a government, which he helped to create, that was formed on the idea that "all men are created equal".TrueAs discussed in class, to study socioeconomic status (SES) or social class, sociologists operationalize SES or class using measurements of:a) income and wealth b) level of education c) parents level of education d) all of the above DIn a study of "rage incidents" on airplanes, researchers found that the presence of a first-class section on an airplane decreased the chance of such a disturbance by 9.5%.FalseIn 1790 the first Congress of the United States restricted naturalization to only "free white persons", and this restriction to naturalized citizenship to white persons was in effect in U.S. law until it was changed in 1927.FalseIn the United States one's "race" is most commonly defined by skin pigment or color.TrueAccording to Stephen Jay Gould's assessment of Samuel Morton's research on craniology, Morton did attempt to eliminate his personal bias and prejudice about race but his racial prejudice influenced his methodological choices.TrueThe United States has the highest level of income and wealth inequality of all G7 nations, the Gini coefficient (the measure of inequality in a country) is _________.a) .275 b) .434 c) .784 d) 1 BWhen conducting researrch on socioeconomic status (SES) or class, it is important to look at socioeconomic indicators of an individual's parents because SES influences the experience of individuals beginning in childhood.TrueRichard Rothstein notes that a strategy that developed in congress to stop legislation from passing called the "poison pill" strategy was to add unpopular amendments to a bill so that when the bill comes up for a vote it will be defeated. The most famous "poison pill" strategy involved the 1964 Civil Rights Act whereby opponents of the law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race contained in the original bill added a prohibition on discrimination based upon _______ believing that that would result in the defeat of the entire bill.a. sex b. religion c. residential segregation d. family status AIn 1997 the minimum wage was set at $5.15 and it was not increased after that for 10 years until another increase in 2007, making that period of time the longest in U.S. history without an increase in the minimum wage.FalseMax Weber's concept of formal rationality refers to:a) the process by which capitalist societies engage in cultural shifts b) the process by which societies organize institutions using rules and regulations c) the process by which institutions utilize scientific management to organize businesses d) the process by which labor jobs are replaced with service industry jobs BIn the 1980s and 1990s the National Restaurant Association worked with Congress to determine a increase in the minimum wage that balanced concerns of restaurant owners and workers.FalseThe four essential elements of the bureaucracies influenced by the process George Ritzer calls the McDonaldization are:a) Efficiency, predictability, calculability, control b) Career ladders, quantification, control, rationalization c) Predictability, efficiency, hierarchy, control d) Control, predictability, coercion, irrationality AIn the 1980s marketing executives targeted fast food marketing to children; marketing campaigns were designed to provide children specific reason to ask for products at particular fast food chains and encourage them to nag their parents to take them to those fast food restaurants.TrueThe major differences between Max Weber's model of bureaucracy and George Ritzer's model of McDonaldization is that the McDonaldized model includes:a) A greater degree of control, calculability, and predictability of products and greater efficiency b) A greater extend of control over employees, including control over language and emotional presentation c) Both a & b d) Niether a & b, there is no significant difference between Weber's model and Ritzer's model, they are studying different aspects of business models CResidential racial segregation in the U.S. today is most accurately described as the result of individual choices about what communities they want to live in.FalseIn the podcast The Uncertain Hour discussed a Riverside, California welfare program which focused on getting welfare recipients into jobs by focusing on messaging the value of work (including through the production of a pro-work music CD) and forcing recipients to take whatever entry level job they could find. The Riverside model became influential in the federal legislative changes concerning welfare and facilitated the passage of The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 largely because of research findings that followed those who were in the Riverside program and found that five years after leaving the program they were more likely to be employed and were financially better off than those in programs that were focused on education and worker-training. When further research compared people in the Riverside program to those in education and worker-training based programs 7-8 years later, researchers found:a) the trend continued and those in the Riverside work focused program were still better off financially than those in education and training based programs. b) the trend reversed and those in the Riverside work focused program were less financially well off than those in education and training based programs. c) there was no difference between the financial situation of those in work-based and those in education and training-based programs d) No further studies were done after the 5 year mark BAfter World War II, as the housing market was growing and the middle class was accessing home ownership at unprecedented levels, a wide spread practice developed in the real estate market whereby realtors would sell a home in a white neighborhood to an economically qualified African American family; then the realtor would go to white neighbors and threaten them with falling housing values to get them to undersell their homes—which they would then sell at higher rates to other African American families. This process (now illegal) was called:a. Redlining b. Loan Rating c. Block busting d. Code-switching CAlthough countries with higher levels of inequality experience higher levels of some health and social problems, social mobility (or the ability for one generation to do better financially than the previous generation) is also higher in countries with high levels of inequality.FalseThe major social structural factors that led to the mass proliferation and success of fast food restaurants include:a) the federal construction of air traffic control b) increased car and truck sales leading many more individuals owning automobiles c) housing revitalization in urban, especially central city, neighborhoods d) all of the above BIn lecture discussion of Jonathan Kozol's analysis of the differences between Chicago South-side school DuSable, and suburban Dearborn Park school New Trier, it was noted that at DuSable _____ percent of the curriculum has been changed to vocational education so that students do not have core curriculum classes to prepare them for college.10% 27% 48% 63% 63 percentRichard Rothstein notes that largely as a result of government racial residential segregation polices economic inequality between whites and African Americans today is severe, and African Americans incomes are _____ of white incomes and African American wealth is _________ of white wealth.a. 30% __ 3% b. 30% __ 10% c. 60% __ 10% d. 60% __ 25% CThe policy implemented after World War II, which ensured that white men who had left their jobs to fight in the war effort would get their jobs back when they returned from war, was a policy that was deliberately designed to ensure that white men could retain economic advantage over black men after the Great Migration.FalseIn countries with greater inequality, people say that they have lower levels of trust for their fellow citizens than in countries with relatively less inequality.trueThe podcast The Uncertain Hour noted that the 1996 Welfare Reform Bill that recreated welfare in the United States included four directives for how states could use welfare money from the federal block grants. Those four goals included:a. Job preparation b. Preventing out-of-wedlock pregnancies c. Cash assistance for needy families d. All of the above DIn Richard Wilkinson's talk on the harms of socioeconomic inequality he notes that empirical evidence demonstrates that societies with higher levels of inequality (measured by the distance between the top 20% of earners compared to the bottom 20% of earners),rates of _________________________ is/are higher compared to less unequal societies.a. infant mortality b. mental illness c. homicide d. all of the above DIn The Uncertain Hour podcast, Episode 2, the welfare recipients (current and former) that the reporters talked with noted that they would prefer to work, even for low wages or in multipoe jobs, than receive welfare benefits.TrueAs discussed in class, George Ritzer noted that Starbucks model of business operation is very similar to McDonalds behind the scenes. For example, when Starbucks desigined their seating to be comfortable enough to apeal to an idea of a third social space, but not comfortable enough that patrons of the store could comfortably sit there for hours at a time, this is an example of:Efficiency Control Calculability Retaliation CalculabilityThe National Housing Act of 1934 established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), a government entity that secured housing loans so that banks could give housing loans to individuals, and if those individuals defaulted on the loan, the government would pay the bank loan.TrueThe 1956 creation of a federal government funded interstate highway system resulted in greater white wealth, because highways allowed whites to more easily move into Suburban communities, but devestated Black communities because highways were built through the middle of urban Black neighborhoods. This process lead to residential racial segregation and racial economic disparities that continue to influence racial disparities in housing and neighborhood wealth today.TrueAccording to the reporting in the LA Times article "Homeless and Pregnant", homeless young women (18-25) are ___________ more likely to become pregnant that housed young women, yet they have little to no pregnancy related resources.5 times 10 times 7% 12% 5timesDuring the pandemic billionaires experienced a 44% spike in their collective wealth; in the first 11 months of the pandemic the total wealth of U.S. billionaires grew by ___________.a) $1.3 million b) $7.8 million c) $1.3 billion d) $7.8 billion CThe structural consequences of redlining and residential segregation have declined, if not disappeared, since the passage of the 1968 Fair Housing Act.FalseAccording to the video Unnatural Causes: Place Matters, _______________ is the largest predictor of health outcomes in the United States.race occupation street address immigration status Street addressThe research presented in Unnatural Causes: When the Bough Breaks suggests that the most likely explanation for racial disparities (especially regarding high rates for African American women) in low birth weight babies is:a) racism b) class differences among women of different races c)nutritional differences during pregnancy d)all of the above AWhich of the following structural factors lead to racial disparities in health care and health outcomes?a) residential segregation b) racial economic inequality c) stress resulting from racism d) all of the above DAs noted in the video Unnatural Causes: Place Matters, a family can purchase 1500 calories worth of food at fast food restaurants for only a couple dollars, as a result of this the United States does not have a problem with malnourishment that less wealthy countries have.falseIn 2001 and 2002, after Purdue Pharma executives were aware of the severe addictive potential of Oxycontin, the company continued to vigorously market the drug and made ____________ in combined sales of Oxycontin in just those two years,.a) $3 million b) $634 million c) $3 billion d) $6 billion CIn the 1990s the Institute on Race and Poverty conducted a study on racial profiling in police stop and search procedures in Maryland on the I-95 corridor, of those drivers stopped and searched by police the study found that the "hit rate" (or the percentage of searches that revealed contraband) for whites was 28%; for African Americans the "hit rate" was _________.A) 18% B) 28% c) 38% d) 48% BWhen the civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama finally took place, at the end approximately 5,000 people marched.FalseAfter Purdue Pharma's parent company and three of the top executives at the company were found guilty of criminal charges for misbranding oxycontin by claiming it was less addictive than other opioids, the company was required to pay approximately $600 million in fines and the three executives were each given 6 months in jail.FalseMichael Tonry notes that in 1990, less than a decade after Ronald Reagan implemented the Military Cooperation with Law Enforcement Agencies Act (passed in 1981), African Americans were _________ as likely as whites to be incarcerated.A) 2 times B) 7 times C) 10 times d) 15 times BIn Richmond, California, vast public investment in housing occurred after WWII, largely through FHA (Federal Housing Authority) loans. These loans were largely only available to white families. Only _______ of FHA loans went to non-white families in Richmond.A) 2% B) 10% C) 17% D) 27% AAccording to the video Unnatural Causes: When the Bough Breaks, African American mothers with a college degree have worse birth outcomes than white mothers without a high school education.TrueThe video Unnatural Causes: Place Matters noted that in the community of Highpoint, Washington, asthma was endemic -- 1 in ______ houses were effected by asthma.2 9 18 20 9According to the video "Why we need LGBTQ+ Education", _______ out of 10 LGBTQ+ students felt unsafe at school beause of their sexual orientation.2 4 6 8 6The 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that whites reported more drug use than African Americans for every drug except:Marijuana powder cocaine Inhalants None of the above noneIn 2020-2021 _________ of inflation is the result of corporate profits, as opposed to increased cost of production (including wages, transportation, supplies, etc).7.4% 11.4% 38.3% 53.9% 53.9%After Alabama Judge Johnson finally approved the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in 1965, Governor George Wallace (of Alabama) gave in to the appeals of President Johnson and provided police protection for marchers for the entirety of the march.FalseChronic stress can lead to weakened immune systems, high blood pressure, and other health problems that can increase negative health outcomes.TrueAccording to the video "Why we need LGBTQ+ Education", _________ of LGBTQ+ students hear homophobic remarks every day.38.8% 53.9% 71.3% 81.9% 71.3%After Brown v. Board of Education, when Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas was ordered to desegregate, forces of the state government and private citizens combined to prevent Black students from entering the high school and the federal government sent troops within 7 days to provide support and protection for African American students to enter the school.FalseIn 1974 the Supreme Court held that District courts could not order inter-district remedies, in cases of unlawful school segregation, which included the city of Detroit and the surrounding suburbs, unless there was a showing that the school board in each of the surrounding suburbs acted intentionally to create the racial segregation. This was the holding in the case:Milliken v. Bradley Plessy v. Ferguson United States v. Thind Brown v. Board of Education MvBA 2009 Vera Institute study on prosecutorial discretion found that of arrestees in New York arrested with drugs and drug paraphernalia, 27% of African Americans were not prosecuted, and _____ of whites were not prosecuted.27% 34% 41% 59% 41%Michael Tonry suggests that the incarceration rate for African Americans tripled between 1981-1990 because African Americans were committing more crime during this decade.FalseAlthough there remains some racial segregation in education in the years since Brown v. Board of Education, it only remains in Southern states, and most U.S. schools are desegregated.FalseAccording to lecture, between 1915 to 1960 ________ African Americans migrated from rural South to the North and West.3.4 million 4 million 5.3 million 6 million 6milThe resource inequality in white neighborhoods versus African American neighborhoods leads to school funding inequality even when people in African American neighborhoods pay disproportionately higher tax rates.True