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Exam 2 Practice Questions
Terms in this set (59)
Cilia and flagella move due to the interaction of the cytoskeleton with which of the following?
B. motor proteins
A substance moving from outside the cell into the cytoplasm must pass through __________.
A. the nucleus
B. a microtubule
C. the endomembrane system
D. a ribosome
E. the plasma membrane
the plasma membrane
The organelle that is a plant cell's compartment for the storage of inorganic ions such as potassium and chloride is the __________.
B. central vacuole
C. food vacuole
E. vacuole plastid
The endosymbiont theory explains the origins of __________.
A. mitochondria and ribosomes
B. chloroplasts and the plant cell vacuole
C. mitochondria and chloroplasts
D. there is no correct answer because the endosymbiotic theory is no longer supported
E. the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria
mitochondria and chloroplasts
The extracellular matrix of the animal cell has all of the following molecular components except __________.
A. a middle lamella
C. fibronectin and integrins
a middle lamella
Cells are small because __________.
A. smaller objects have a smaller ratio of surface to volume
B. small cells are easier to back together
C. of the geometric relationships between surface and volume
D. area is proportional to a dimension squared
E. none of the listed responses is correct
of the geometric relationships between surface and volume
Which of the following is false in respect to cells' chromosomes?
A. all cells possess one or more chromosomes
B. chromosomes are present throughout a cell's reproductive cycle
C. chromosomes only appear as a cell is about to divide
D. chromosomes only exist when cells are actively synthesizing proteins
chromosomes only appear as a cell is about to divide
Evidence that supports the prokaryotic origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts are all of the following except __________.
A. that mitochondria and chloroplasts have multiple copies of linear DNA molecules associated with their inner membranes
B. that mitochondria and chloroplasts can grow and reproduce within a cell
C. that mitochondria and chloroplasts are somewhat independent within a cell
D. that mitochondria and chloroplasts have multiple copies of circular DNA molecules associated with their membranes
E. that the ancestral prokaryote had two outer membranes, which became the double membranes of the mitochondria and chloroplasts
that mitochondria and chloroplasts have multiple copies of linear DNA molecules associated with their inner membranes
The region of a bacterial cell that contains the genetic material is called the __________.
Bacterial cells are prokaryotic. Unlike a typical eukaryotic cell they __________.
A. lack a plasma membrane
B. lack chromosomes
C. have a smaller nucleus
D. have no ribosomes
E. have no membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm
have no membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm
Observing a fluorescent micrograph cell with intermediate filaments would help you identify the cell as a __________.
A. fungal cell
B. prokaryotic cell
C. eukaryotic cell
D. human skin cell
E. plant cell
human skin cell
What is the functional connection between the nucleolus, nuclear pores, and the nuclear membrane?
A. The nuclear pores are connections between the nuclear membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum that permit ribosomes to assemble on the surface of the ER.
B. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane is produced in the nucleolus and leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores.
C. The nucleolus contains messenger RNA (mRNA), which crosses the nuclear envelope through the nuclear pores.
D. Subunits of ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus and pass through the nuclear membrane via the nuclear pores.
subunits of ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus and pass through the nuclear membrane via the nuclear pores.
Cell junctions in plant cells are called __________, and communicating junctions in animal cells are called __________.
A. plasmodesmata; gap junctions
B. desmosomes; plasmodesmata
C. tight junctions; gap junctions
D. gap junctions; plasmodesmata
E. plasmodesmata; tight junctions
plasmodesmata; gap junctions
Which of the following groups is primarily involved in synthesizing molecules needed by the cell?
A. Vacuole, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
B. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, and vacuole
C. Ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and vacuole
E. Lysosome, vacuole, and ribosomes
ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which statement about the cytoskeleton is true?
A. Plant cells lack a cytoskeleton because they have a rigid cell wall.
B. Components of the cytoskeleton often mediate the movement of organelles within the cytoplasm.
C. Microtubules are chains of proteins that resist stretching.
D. Microfilaments are more permanent structures in cells compared to intermediate filaments and microtubules.
E. Intermediate filaments are hollow tubes of protein that provide structural support.
components of the cytoskeleton often mediate the movement of organelles within the cytoplasm.
Basal bodies are most closely associated with which of the following cell components?
C. The central vacuole
D. Golgi apparatus
Animal cells have unique organelles called __________ that are composed of structures called __________.
A. Nucleosomes; centrioles
B. Centrioles; centrosomes
C. Centrosomes; centrioles
D. Centromeres; centrioles
E. Centrosomes; nucleosomes
A protein that ultimately functions in the plasma membrane of a cell is most likely to have been synthesized __________.
A. On free cytoplasmic ribosomes
B. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum
C. In the ribosomes of the mitochondria
D. In the plasma membrane
E. In the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
__________ are membrane-bound metabolic compartments that specialize in the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its conversion to water.
The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is __________.
A. To synthesize lipids
B. To synthesize sex hormones
C. To detox drugs and alcohol
D. To store calcium ions
E. To synthesize proteins that are secreted as glycoproteins
to synthesize proteins that are secreted as glycoproteins
The walls of plant cells are largely composed of polysaccharides and proteins that are synthesized __________.
A. in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. in the Golgi apparatus
C. in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the Golgi apparatus
D. in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E. externally to the plasma membrane
in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the golgi apparatus
You would expect a cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to __________.
A. store large quantities of ions
B. move rapidly
C. secrete a lot of protein
D. absorb nutrients in the GI tract
E. make a lot of ATP
secrete a lot of protein
The endoplasmic reticulum is part of the endomembrane system, which also includes the __________.
A. nuclear envelope, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles
B. mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles
C. nuclear envelope, the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria
D. nuclear envelope, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
E. nuclear envelope, the Golgi apparatus, and ribosomes
nuclear envelope, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
A. Nuclear envelope
In terms of cellular function, what is the most important difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
A. Eukaryotic cells can synthesize proteins but prokaryotic cells cannot.
B. Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells.
C. Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized, which allows for specialization.
D. Eukaryotic cells lack many of the organelles found in prokaryotes.
E. Eukaryotic cells are much more successful than prokaryotic cells.
eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized, which allows for specialization
Cell motility, which includes changes both in cell location and in the movement of cell parts, requires interactions of the cytoskeleton __________.
A. With the endoplasmic reticulum
B. With motor proteins
C. Without ATP
D. With glycosomes
E. With "feet" to "walk"
with motor proteins
The network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in a cell __________.
A. are intermediate filaments
B. is the cytoskeleton
C. are microtubules
D. are centrioles
E. are microfilaments
is the cytoskeleton
Microfilaments function in cell motility including __________.
A. muscle contraction, amoeboid movement, and centriole function
B. flagella motion, cilia motion, and centriole function
C. muscle contraction, amoeboid movement, and flagella motion
D. muscle contraction, amoeboid movement, and cilia motion
E. muscle contraction, amoeboid movement, and cytoplasmic streaming in plants
muscle contraction, amoeboid movement, and cytoplasmic streaming in plants
Your intestine is lined with individual cells. No fluids leak between these cells from the gut into your body. Why?
A. The intestinal cells are fused together into one giant cell.
B. The intestinal cells are bound together by gap junctions.
C. The intestinal cells are bound together by the extracellular matrix.
D. The intestinal cells are bound together by tight junctions.
E. The intestinal cells are bound together by plasmodesmata.
the intestinal cells are bound together by tight junctions
Dye injected into a plant cell might be able to enter an adjacent cell through __________.
A. a tight junction
B. a gap junction
C. a microtubule
D. a cell wall
Which statement about the cytoskeleton is true?
A. Intermediate filaments are hollow tubes of protein that provide structural support
B. Microtubules are chains of proteins that resist stretching
C. Components of the cytoskeleton often mediate the movement of organelles within the cytoplasm
D. Microfilaments are more permanent structures in cells compared to intermediate filaments and microtubules
E. Plant cells lack a cytoskeleton because they have a rigid cell wall
components of the cytoskeleton often mediate the movement of organelles within the cytoplasm
The plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability. This means that __________.
A. The plasma membrane allows some substances to flow through it more easily than others
B. The plasma membrane does not allow any substance to flow through it
C. The plasma membrane allows any substance to flow through it easily
D. The structure of the plasma membrane does not affect its permeability
E. Proteins in the membrane do not affect its permeability
the plasma membrane allows some substances to flow through it more easily than others
How does cholesterol affect membrane fluidity?
A. It has no effect on membrane fluidity.
B. At body temperature, it makes the membrane more fluid.
C. At lower temperatures, it makes the membrane more fluid.
D. It allows phospholipids to pack tightly together.
E. At body temperature, it makes the membrane less fluid.
at body temperature, it makes the membrane less fluid
A nursing infant is able to obtain disease-fighting antibodies, which are large protein molecules, from its mother's milk. These molecules probably enter the cells lining the baby's digestive tract via which process?
C. Active transport
D. Passive transport
Cells A and B are the same size, shape, and temperature, but cell A is metabolically less active than cell B; cell B is actively converting oxygen to water in cellular respiration. Oxygen will diffuse more rapidly into cell __________ because __________.
A. A; its membrane transport proteins will not be saturated
B. B; the gradient of oxygen is oriented in the opposite direction compared to cell A
C. A; the diffusion gradient there is shallower
D. B; the oxygen molecules inside cell B have a higher kinetic energy
E. B; the diffusion gradient in cell B is steeper
b; the diffusion gradient in cell B is steeper
Which of the following plant cells would exhibit the most turgor pressure?
A. A cell placed in an isotonic solution
B. None of the listed responses is correct.
C. A cell placed in a hypertonic solution
D. All of the listed responses are correct.
E. A cell placed in a hypotonic solution
a cell placed in a hypotonic solution
Which of the following is correct regarding integral proteins?
A. They have no specific function in the plasma membrane.
B. They exhibit only hydrophilic properties.
C. These proteins are found only on the surface of the plasma membrane.
D. They exhibit only hydrophobic properties.
E. These proteins exhibit both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
these proteins exhibit both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
In facilitated diffusion, __________ proteins provide openings in the plasma membrane for substances to flow through without changing structure, and __________ proteins allow passage of substances through the plasma membrane after undergoing a subtle change in shape.
A. peripheral; enzymatic
B. carrier; channel
C. channel; carrier
D. receptor; channel
E. active transport; signal transduction
Which of the following molecules is most likely to passively diffuse across the plasma membrane?
C. Carbon dioxide
E. Sodium ion
Which of the following is correct regarding peripheral proteins?
A. These proteins exhibit both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
B. These proteins are found only on the surface of the plasma membrane.
C. They exhibit only hydrophobic properties.
D. They have no specific function in the plasma membrane.
E. They span the entire phospholipid bilayer.
these proteins are found only on the surface of the plasma membrane
Which of the following statements about diffusion is true?
A. It is very rapid over long distances.
B. It occurs when molecules move from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
C. It always requires integral proteins of the cell membrane.
D. It requires expenditure of energy by the cell.
E. It is a passive process.
it is a passive process
Which of the following is a correct difference between active transport and facilitated diffusion?
A. Facilitated diffusion involves transport proteins, and active transport does not.
B. Active transport involves transport proteins, and facilitated diffusion does not.
C. Facilitated diffusion can move solutes against a concentration gradient, and active transport cannot.
D. Active transport requires energy from ATP, and facilitated diffusion does not.
E. Active transport can move solutes in either direction across a membrane, but facilitated diffusion can only move in one direction.
active transport requires energy from ATP, and facilitated diffusion does not
How does the "fluid mosaic model" describe the structure of the plasma membrane?
A. None of the listed responses is correct.
B. Only the proteins in the membrane contribute to its fluidity.
C. Proteins in the membrane contribute to the mosaic quality of the membrane while the lateral and rotational movements of phospholipids contribute to its fluidity.
D. The plasma membrane is a rigid structure that exhibits little flexibility.
E. The fluid characteristic is due to the presence of carbohydrates, and the mosaic characteristic is due to the presence of phospholipids.
proteins in the membrane contribute to the mosaic quality of the membrane while the lateral and rotational movements of phospholipids contribute to its fluidity
All cells have voltages across their membranes. This voltage is called a(n) __________ and is often maintained by __________.
A. None of the listed responses is correct.
B. isotonic solution; diffusion
C. electrochemical gradient; diffusion
D. concentration gradient; osmosis
E. membrane potential; electrogenic pumps
membrane potential; electrogenic pumps
Which of the following statements concerning carbohydrates associated with the plasma membrane is correct?
A. Carbohydrates on the plasma membrane are typically short chains of between two and five monosaccharides.
B. Carbohydrates associated with the plasma membrane are located on both surfaces of the membrane.
C. The carbohydrate composition of most eukaryotic plasma membranes is quite similar.
D. Carbohydrates are only found associated with the membranes of prokaryotic cells.
E. Membrane carbohydrates function primarily in cell-cell recognition.
membrane carbohydrates function primarily in cell-cell recognition
Which of the following structural arrangements of the components in biological membranes facilitates the cell membrane's property of selective permeability?
A. Phospholipids sandwiched between two layers of protein
B. Proteins embedded in two layers of phospholipids
C. A phospholipid bilayer with proteins scattered on the surfaces of the membranes
D. Proteins sandwiched between two layers of phospholipids
E. A layer of protein coating a layer of phospholipid
proteins embedded in two layers of phospholipids
If a red blood cell and a plant cell were placed in seawater, what would happen to the two types of cells?
A. Both cells would gain water by osmosis; the red blood cell would burst, and the plant cell would increase in turgor pressure.
B. Seawater is isotonic to both cells, therefore, neither cell will change as there will be no movement of water into or out of the cells.
C. The red blood cell would burst, and the plant cell would shrink.
D. Both cells would lose water; the red blood cell would shrivel, and the plant plasma membrane would pull away from the cell wall.
E. The red blood cell would shrink, and the plant cell would gain water.
both cells would lose water; the red blood cell would shrivel, and the plant plasma membrane would pull away from the cell wall
Why is energy required for active transport?
A. Because it moves solutes against their concentration gradient
B. To allow the movement of water from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution
C. To allow the movement of water from a hypertonic solution to a hypotonic solution
D. Because it helps maintain water balance in cells without walls
E. To allow the movement of solutes down their concentration gradient
because it moves solutes against their concentration gradient
What function do carbohydrates fulfill in the plasma membrane?
A. Transport of molecules across the membrane
B. They contribute to its "fluid characteristic"
C. Cell-to-cell recognition
D. They facilitate the enzymatic processes
E. They contribute to its selective permeability
Which of the following statements about the role of phospholipids in the structure and function of biological membranes is correct?
A. Phospholipids are completely insoluble in water
B. Phospholipids form a structure in which the hydrophobic portion faces outward
C. They are triacylglycerols, which are commonly available in foods
D. Phospholipids form a single sheet in water
E. Phospholipids form a selectively permeable structure
phospholipids form a selectively permeable structure
Which of the following molecules are most abundant in the plasma membrane?
A cell is placed into a solution and the cell shrinks. Which of the following is true regarding the solution?
A. The solution has the same solute concentration as the cell
B. The cell is hypertonic
C. The solution is hypotonic
D. The solution is hypertonic
E. None of the above
the solution is hypertonic
The sodium-potassium pump __________.
A. Transports glucose into the cell
B. Transports potassium ions into the cell
C. Transports sodium ions out of the cell
D. Transports sodium ions out of the cell and transports potassium ions into the cell
E. Does not require energy to function
transports sodium ions out of the cell and transports potassium ions into the cell
Which of the following processes and organelle(s) accounts for the replacement of lipids and proteins lost from the plasma membrane?
A. Exocytosis and smooth and rough ER
B. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and smooth ER and Golgi
C. Active transport and the rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. Endocytosis and golgi
E. Flip-flop of phospholipids from one side of the plasma membrane to the other and the Golgi
exocytosis and smooth and rough ER
Which of the following statements about passive transport is correct?
A. Passive transport permits the solute to move in either direction, but the net movement of the population of solute molecules occurs down the concentration gradient of the molecule.
B. Passive transport operates independently of diffusion.
C. Passive transport operates independently of the concentrations of the moving solute.
D. Passive transport does not occur in the human body.
E. In passive transport, solute movement stops when the solute concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane.
passive transport permits the solute to move in either direction, but the net movement of the population of solute molecules occurs down the concentration gradient of the molecule
Which of the following would be least likely to diffuse through a plasma membrane without the help of a transport protein?
A. Any of the above would easily diffuse through the membrane
B. A large polar molecule
C. A large non-polar molecule
D. Dissolved gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide
A small non-polar molecule
a large polar molecule
Which of the following substances would be most likely to pass through the plasma membrane without the help of a transport protein?
A. A non-polar molecule, such as a hydrocarbon
B. A large polar molecule
E. A negatively charged ion
a non-polar molecule, such as a hydrocarbon
Which of these statements describes some aspect of facilitated diffusion?
A. There is only one kind of protein pore for facilitated diffusion
B. Facilitated diffusion is another name for osmosis
C. Facilitated diffusion of solutes may occur through channel or transport proteins in the membrane
D. Facilitated diffusion of solutes occurs through phospholipid pores in the membrane
E. Facilitated diffusion requires energy to drive a concentration gradient
facilitated diffusion of solutes may occur through channel or transport proteins in the membrane
Red blood cells contain approximately a 2% concentration of solutes. A red blood cell is placed into a solution that contains a 4% concentration of solutes to which the cell is not permeable. What will happen to the red blood cell?
A. The solutes will diffuse out of the cell.
B. The cell will increase in size as water flows into it.
C. The solutes will diffuse into the cell.
D. Nothing will happen because the solution and the cell are isotonic to each other.
E. The cell will decrease in size as water flows out of it.
the cell will decrease in size as water flows out of it
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