51 terms

Go Science 2 - Chapter 1: Systems for survival

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Anorexia
An eating disorder marked by constant dieting, rapid weight loss, and the illusion of being fat in spite of weight loss.
Balanced Diet
a diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity
Carbohydrate
used for energy - made from sugars
Fat
High energy molecule, that can also be used for insulation.
Fibre
A type of carbohydrate that the body does not digest
Hypothesis
A prediction that can be tested
Mineral
Elements found in food that are used by the body
Nutrient
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
Nutritionist
A person who studies foods and nutrients
Obese
extremely overweight
Observation
Information obtained through the senses.
Protein
A molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures.
Scurvy
A vitamin C deficiency disease marked by bleeding gums, weakness, loose teeth, and broken capillaries under the skin.
Vitamin
Essential organic substances we need daily in small amounts to perform functions in the body
E number
Number assigned to a food additive that has been approved for use in Europe.
Food Additive
Substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance.
Digestion
Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
Digestive juices
Acids, enzymes and other chemicals produced by the body to break down the food we eat into nutrients that can be absorbed and used
Digestive system
body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
Enzyme
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in a living thing
Gut
Another name for the intestine
Physiology
Science dealing with the functions of living things or their organs
Small intestine
Digestive organ where most chemical digestion and absorption of food takes place
Stomach
A muscular organ that mixes food and passes it to the small intestine
Amylase
An enzyme in the saliva that helps to break down starch
Lipase
A digestive enzyme that breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
Protease
An enzyme capable of digesting proteins.
Aerobic respiration
Respiration that requires oxygen to release energy from food.
Anaerobic respiration
Respiration that does not require oxygen
Chlorophyll
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
Glucose
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
Lactic acid
During strenuous exercise muscles will produce?
Photosynthesis
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen
Respiration
A chemical reaction in a living organism to release the energy from food.
Artery
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Blood vessel
A collection of tubes that transport blood around the body.
Capillary
A tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells
Circulatory System
The human body system that contians the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells
Heart
muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
Vein
A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
Alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
Diffuse
To move from a high concentration to a lower concentration
Gas exchange
Breathing, transport of gases, and exchange of gases with tissue cells; Provides Oxygen for cellular respiration and removes its waste product, Carbon dioxide.
Lungs
Organs through which an animal get oxygen from the air.
Respiratory system
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
Continuous variable
A variable that can take on a wide or infinite number of values
Dependent variable
In an experiment, the variable that is measured.
Independent variable
The variable that can be changed.
Line of best fit
a smooth line that reflects the general pattern in a graph
Experimental error
Errors within an experiment
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