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a patron/client relationship between two freemen (men who are not serfs), a lord and his vassal; an economic, political, and social organization of medieval Europe
peasants who were personally free but bound to the lord of the manor and the land of the manor; rented land from the lord to cultivate to produce their own crops; owed work and various gifts of produce to the lord; had to pay for the right to marry; had to work for the lord a set number of days a week and at intense periods of harvest and planting
special ceremony of fief-granting in which the lord gave to his vassal a clod of earth or sprig of leaves
the Normans' conquest of England; victory of William the Conqueror over the English army weakened by an earlier viking attack
the true restorer of the German Empire; primarily a warrior; conquest was a principal foundation of his power; routed the pagan Magyars and ended their menace to Christian Europe; organized military provinces, or marches, along the Eastern frontier; actively promoted the work of German missionaries and settlers beyond the Elbe River; married Italian queen
monastic communities stemming from Cluny; placed directly under the pope; advocated return to Benedictine Rule and emphasis on the liturgy
a Cluniac monk who was instumental in designing the College of Cardinals; proclaimed pope by the citizens and clergy of Rome; brought to the office a high regard for the papacy's powers and responsibilities and a burning desire for reform; asserted that the pope wielded absolute authority and could overrule any local bishop in the exercise of his ordinary or usual jurisdiction; believed that all Christian princes must answer to the pope in spitirual matters and that the pope himself had a responsibility to guide those princes; ideals set up a direct conflict with Henry IV
Concordant of Worms
settlement of the Investiture Controversy; agreement that the lay rulers would no longer invest prelates with the symbols of their spiritual office; pope would allow the elections of imperial bishops and abbots to be held in the presence of the emperor or his representative; victory for the papacy; gave the popes more control over their bishops thoughout Europe
Pope Urban II
urged knights not to fight fellow Christians but to go to the traditional land of milk and honey and fight Muslims instead for land; called on nobility to undertake an expedition to the Holy Land
unified Muslims; controlled Egypt and was able to conquer Syria so that the Latin Kingdom was surrounded; captured Jerusalem
the economic organization of agricultural production; the organization of the lives and labour of peasants who did the actual cultivating
the grant of a fief by a vassal to a subordinate who became his vassal; complicated the hierarchy that Charlemagne had initially envisioned; permitted vassals to have their own vassals
William of Normandy
duke; architect of the Norman Conquest; promised kingship by Edward the Confessor and did not receive it; became king after Battle of Hastings
house starting with emperor Henry III after the end of the the Ottonian line with Henry II in 1024
College of Cardinals
maintained continuity of papal policy; deprived emperor and Roman nobility of the appointment of the pope
pawn in power shifts of a civil war; used a fight between one of his vassals and the Duke of Saxony as an excuse to depose the Duke; raised a number of lower born men to the rank of ministeriales (bureacrats and soldiers), equipping them with horses and armour; offended nobility; excommunicated by Gregory VII
authoritative statements from the Bible, Church councils, Church fathers, and popes, which constituted the law of the Church
Byzantine emperor who had some success against the Turks but needed mercenary soldiers to enlarge his army; suggested to end the Church schism
Robert of Normandy
"the Sly" or "the Fox"; managed to conquer southern Italy and receive papal recognition for the territory; headed a northern French army in the First Crusade
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