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Words from chapter 8


a patron/client relationship between two freemen (men who are not serfs), a lord and his vassal; an economic, political, and social organization of medieval Europe


peasants who were personally free but bound to the lord of the manor and the land of the manor; rented land from the lord to cultivate to produce their own crops; owed work and various gifts of produce to the lord; had to pay for the right to marry; had to work for the lord a set number of days a week and at intense periods of harvest and planting


special ceremony of fief-granting in which the lord gave to his vassal a clod of earth or sprig of leaves


reconquest and resettlement of the Iberian Peninsula


small elite group at the top of medieval society

Norman Conquest

the Normans' conquest of England; victory of William the Conqueror over the English army weakened by an earlier viking attack

Otto I

the true restorer of the German Empire; primarily a warrior; conquest was a principal foundation of his power; routed the pagan Magyars and ended their menace to Christian Europe; organized military provinces, or marches, along the Eastern frontier; actively promoted the work of German missionaries and settlers beyond the Elbe River; married Italian queen

Ottonian Renaissance

revival of learning in Germany fostered by Otto I

Cluniac monasteries

monastic communities stemming from Cluny; placed directly under the pope; advocated return to Benedictine Rule and emphasis on the liturgy

Gregory VII

a Cluniac monk who was instumental in designing the College of Cardinals; proclaimed pope by the citizens and clergy of Rome; brought to the office a high regard for the papacy's powers and responsibilities and a burning desire for reform; asserted that the pope wielded absolute authority and could overrule any local bishop in the exercise of his ordinary or usual jurisdiction; believed that all Christian princes must answer to the pope in spitirual matters and that the pope himself had a responsibility to guide those princes; ideals set up a direct conflict with Henry IV

Concordant of Worms

settlement of the Investiture Controversy; agreement that the lay rulers would no longer invest prelates with the symbols of their spiritual office; pope would allow the elections of imperial bishops and abbots to be held in the presence of the emperor or his representative; victory for the papacy; gave the popes more control over their bishops thoughout Europe

papal curia

stronger central bureacracy of popes

Pope Urban II

urged knights not to fight fellow Christians but to go to the traditional land of milk and honey and fight Muslims instead for land; called on nobility to undertake an expedition to the Holy Land


unified Muslims; controlled Egypt and was able to conquer Syria so that the Latin Kingdom was surrounded; captured Jerusalem


an honourable personal bond between a lord and his man


the economic organization of agricultural production; the organization of the lives and labour of peasants who did the actual cultivating


the lord's concession of land to his vassal in exchange for specified terms of service


the grant of a fief by a vassal to a subordinate who became his vassal; complicated the hierarchy that Charlemagne had initially envisioned; permitted vassals to have their own vassals

liege lord

the one whom a vassal would serve above all others; selected by the vassal

William of Normandy

duke; architect of the Norman Conquest; promised kingship by Edward the Confessor and did not receive it; became king after Battle of Hastings


members of the clergy

Salian House

house starting with emperor Henry III after the end of the the Ottonian line with Henry II in 1024

College of Cardinals

maintained continuity of papal policy; deprived emperor and Roman nobility of the appointment of the pope

Henry IV

pawn in power shifts of a civil war; used a fight between one of his vassals and the Duke of Saxony as an excuse to depose the Duke; raised a number of lower born men to the rank of ministeriales (bureacrats and soldiers), equipping them with horses and armour; offended nobility; excommunicated by Gregory VII

canon law

authoritative statements from the Bible, Church councils, Church fathers, and popes, which constituted the law of the Church

Alexius Comnenus

Byzantine emperor who had some success against the Turks but needed mercenary soldiers to enlarge his army; suggested to end the Church schism

Robert of Normandy

"the Sly" or "the Fox"; managed to conquer southern Italy and receive papal recognition for the territory; headed a northern French army in the First Crusade

Kingdom of Jerusalem

conquered territory from the First Crusade; depended on a constant influx of men and money from Europe

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