Microbial Diseases of the Skin
week Seven Notes: 1
Terms in this set (24)
clusters of gram positive cocci
Staphylococcal skin diseases
A: Abscess- pus-filled lesion.
B: Boil- Abscess around a hair follicle.
C: Carbuncle- a series of connected boils.
Complications can penetrate to organs/blood.
Toxic Shock Syndrome
-Toxin-producing strain of SA
- Associated w/Tampon use.
-lacerate tissues, give bacteria access to blood stream.
Today: Tattoo parlors.
Symptoms: Drop in Bloo Pressure, circulatory collapse
S. pyogenes with an extra toxin gene that causes capillaries to leak "neck/chest".
"if strep reaches blood/interal organs":
"flesh-bacteria," bacteria that gets under the skin & dissolve/degenerates tissue layers.
don't cough into wounds if u have strep
-chains of gram positive cocci
-usually associated w/respiratory probs.
-acid fast rods, slow reproduction/2 weeks
-long incubation period "3-6 yrs"
-grows in cooler areas of body "hands/feet/ears/extremities"
Leprosy S/S & Dx
Signs & Symptoms
-disfiguring of skin & bones, claw hands, lion face, loss of eyebrows, ear lobe thick & lumpy "collapsing", sometimes nostrils are deformed, lepromas "tumor like growths", nerve damage= secondary injuries & burns.
Dx: skin test similar to TB &/or anti-body test.
Zap it with Dap
Diapsone Rifampin Clofazimine
Treponema pertenue: spirochete; related to syphilis organism.
S/S: Mother Yaw- large raspberry -like lesion at entry site.
French origin: Frambesia= raspberry
-Can also affect the feet-lesions there cause victim to "walk like a crab"-Crab Yaws
Tx: Penicillin G: one sot is curative.
-Gram + spore former.
-Contact w/grazing animals "pick it up from the soil"
S/S: raised itchy black bump of necrotic tissue.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rickettsia rickettsii: bacteria transmitted by ticks, esp the wood tick (beware: campers & hikers).
S/S: Fever & rash "pink & small->red & large"
Gram negative & Treatment is "DOX & AMOX" -if it isn't treated, it can be fatal.
Borrelia burgdorferi: most common tick-borne disease in USA.
1st cases: Old lyme, conneticut- now spread across country.
S/S: Bulls-eye rash: large spreading rash on arm/leg. long-term arthritis & chronic swelling.
Vector is the deer-tick; at risk hunters/hikers/campers.
Tx: Doxycycline & Amoxicillin.
Variola virus; 30% faal; transmission by respiratory drops.
Today: eradicated since 1979 (last case): humans are the only host.
Threat of Bioterrorism since virus itself exists in frozen lockers.
S/S: Huge fluid-filled vesicles, when they break, pitted scars appear "POX"
-MPV outbreak in USA 2003; usually restricted to Africa.
-1st discovered in Monkeys
-How did it come to America?
Exotic Pets (Prarie Dogs & Gambian Rats)
Good news: Symptoms are much milder than smallpox, & usually clear up w/no Treatment in 3 weeks.
-not true "pox" diseases.
-Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV): leads to both diseases (HERPES FAMILY).
-respiratory droplets or skin contact.
S/S: 500 or more fluid filled vesicles "rash across body" itching & fever.
Complication: respiratory failure.
Tx: acetominophen "tylenol" or ibuprofen "advil", never Aspirin "Reyes syndrome".
-not true "pox" diseases.
-Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV): leads to both diseases "HERPES FAMILY"
-attacks nerve near spinal cord.
S/S: appear late & include blistery white rash on one side of the body, "ice-pick" pain.
Vaccines exist for both Chicken Pox & Shingles.
HPV: ove 50 varieties exist, most cause warts, 4 of them can cause cancer (cervical, uterine, penile, anal).
-Sexually transmitted & very common!
Vaccine "2006" recommended for females "8-25".
Dx: Pap smear, DNA tests
Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes: "to creep" refers to fact that virus can infect eyes, skin, lips, brain, genitals, & other areas.
-initial infection is to nerves under the skin.
Tx: Acyclovir "base analog"
-Can be deadly, may cause SSPE, a bad form of encephalitis.
Virus blocks parotid gland, saliva flow is blocked-> swelling in jaw.
Can affect testes "orchitis" in males.
-Rash is flat & fine. (usually mild)
-Can be vertically transmitted by pregnant women to fetus & cause death or other sever symptoms.
-MMR: live vaccine "don't get prego w/in 3 months of taking it"
"Slapped cheek" rash
Dermatophytosis- Tinea Infections
Transmission: sharing hats, towels, walking barefoot (gym), pets, combs.
Ex. Ringworm, Athlete's Foot.
powders "dry the area" or ointments "change the pH"
-Flagellated protozoa, seen in soldiers.
Vector: sand-fly of the desert.
Can cause skin disease (boils) or worst-case a WBC infection (lethal)
Ex. "Rose of Jericho" & The "Bahgdad Boil"
Tx: Antimony compound