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Growth Hormone/IGF-1
-raises glucose level
-secreted from anterior pituitary
-decreases muscle glucose intake,
-increases fatty acid mobilization use and increases protein synthesis through IGF
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine (catecholamines) (4 bullets)
-"Stress hormones"- released when working out.
-stimulates glycogen breakdown in muscle and lipolysis (fat) in adipose tissues
-only want to be released short term
-"fight or flight" reaction to danger
-raises sugar level
-increase heart rate and heart muscle contraction force
-secreted from adrenal medulla and also released by sympathetic nervous system
secreted from the adrenal glands in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and slows immune system function
-"stress hormone"- personal stressers (neg effect) - long term stress
-Bad: breaks down proteins (for energy)
-Good: Increases during long periods of exercise
Good: acts as an insulin antagonist
-male sex hormone/female sex hormone
-benefits related to exercise
-the more you exercise the more you release
-helps burn calories
-lowers sugar level
-secreted by beta cells of the pancreas
-"opens the door" for glucose to be stored in muscles and liver (Stimulates glucose transporters (carrier proteins) to help take glucose from the blood across the cell membrane)
-Stimulates the liver to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen
-Want to release insulin in low quantities (depends on food quantity)
Regulatory Hormones involved in digestion
-Cholecytoskinin (CCK)
-Gastick Inhibitory peptide (GIP)
What do the regulatory hormones do?
They activate organs of the digestive system
-stimulates secretion of HCL and pepsinogen
-stimulates gastric motility
-promotes proliferation of gastric mucosal cells
-hormone secreted by stomach lining cells that stimulates gastric juice
stimulates secretion of the pancreatic bicarbonate
-stimulates secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes
-stimulates gallbladder contraction
-slows gastric emptying
-Inhibits gastric acid secretion
-Slows gastric emptying
-Stimulates insulin release
3 processes food undergoes
1. digestion-large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules; mechanically and chemically
2. Absorption- process of taking these products through the intestinal wall
3. Elimination- undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body
Where does digestion begin?
mouth- chewing moistens food and breaks it down into smaller pieces
-salivary amylase begins chemical breakdown of CARBS
steps of digestion
1. Mouth (where food enters the body)
2. esophagus
3. stomach- the temporary storage of food
4. Small intestine (Absorption)
5. Large intestine (For food that cant be broken down)
functions of saliva
salivary amylase begins starch digestion
bicarbonates neutralize acids
mucus moistens the food
antibody and lysozomes fight oral bacteria
the muscular contractions that move food involuntarily through the GI tract
the valve that guards the airways. covers the opening to the trachea during swallowing
initiates protein digesiton
good sources of carbs
fruits, veggies, and grains
monosaccharides/ disaccharides
contain 1 molecule/ contain 2 molecules
3 Monosaccharides that are natural substances of sugar
glucose, fructose, and galactose
3 disaccharides
lactose, maltose, and sucrose
Are monosaccharides or disaccharides used for energy?
most abundant sugar molecule in our diet, good energy source
sweetest natural sugar, found in fruit, high fructose corn syrup. BAD
does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose
Glucose+ Glucose
3 to 10 monosaccharides
Complex carbs
starch (plant source), glycogen (animal source), fibers
Are simple carbs or complex carbs better? Why?
Complex carbs; digestion occurs with complex carbs. digestion uses energy= burning calories= increasing metabolism
Sugar when it is being used
sugar when it is being stored
starch (storage from of glucose in plants), straight chain of glucose
Food sources for starch
grains, legumes, tubers
Where is glycogen stored?
liver and muscles
Why is fiber not digestible?
We don't have the enzymes
inflammation of large intestine
where are soluble fibers (dissolve in water) found
citrus fruits, berries, oats, and beans
3 examples of insoluble fibers
lignins, cellulose, hemicelluloses
sources of insoluble fibers
whole grains, seeds, legumes, fruits and veggies
TEST QUESTION Where does absorption of carbohydrates start?
Small Intestine
Def of nutrition
getting the chemicals your body must obtain
Def of wellness, 2 components of wellness
-absence of diseases
1. nutrition
2. physical activity
diseases partially affected by nutrition
osteoporosis- weakening of bones
osteoarthritis- inflammation of the joints
some forms of cancer
diseases highly affected by nutrition (Life Style diseases)
-Type 2 diabetes
-Heart Disease
Disease affected by Nutritional Deficiency
-pellagra- Niacin (Vitamin B) deficiency
-scurvy- vitamin c deficiency
top 3 causes of death in us
1. Heart disease
2. Cancer
3. Stroke
Least obese state
carbon based
What are organic nutrients?
carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins
inorganic nutrients?
minerals and water
primary source of energy for the body?
brain uses what for energy?
Adipose tissue
the cells where fat is stored
what do proteins do?
support tissue repair, promote growth
sources of protein?
meat, dairy, seeds, nuts, and legumes
fat soluble vitamins
water soluble vitamins
how many deaths annually are contributed to physical inactivity and poor diet?
at least 450,000
200 years ago what removed the plant diet
industrial revolution with its processing food for economic gain
what characterizes modern western diet?
abundance of processed foods that contain high levels of fat and refined carbs
major factors that can reduce physiological age
-food intake
-do not smoke
-moderate alcohol consumption
-control stress
yo-yo dieting
lose weight on a diet then once u return to normal dieting you regain wait
types of proteins
cytoskeletal proteins
myosin and actin
cytoskeletal proteins
support and organize cell components and control their movement; a scaffolding for the cell and railroad tracks for movement
proteins embedded in the cell membrane and function as communicators between the outside and inside of cells
myosin and actin
involved in muscle contraction
life expectancy
the age to which 50% of the population will live to
77 years
the maximum time ppl can survive
-hasnt changed much since 1900
-100-110 years
people who live longer
-vegetarian (1.5 years)
-exercise regularly (2.4)
-not diabetic (6.6)
-Normal blood pressure (3.7)
-maintain a normal weight (11 years)
2 major types of hormones
1. steroid- (made of lipids)
2. Amino acids or protein- (majority of muscle hormones)
Hormone functions
-protein synthesis
-rate of enzyme activity and secretory activity
-plasma membrane transport
Thyroid Hormone
regulates metabolic rate
-increase blood glucose
-increases at onset of exercise
-increases protein and fat breakdown
constant level of sugar in the blood (regulated by insulin and glucagon)
too much glucose
not enough glucose
3 macronutrients
protein, fat, and carbs
-they provide energy in the form of calories
Pituitary Gland
where growth hormone is released
beta cells of the pancreas
where insulin is released
adrenal gland
where cortisol is released
adrenal medulla
where epinephrine and norepinephrine are released