Intro into nursing test 2

What is the definition of Culture?
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What are causal beliefs about illness?•Cultural differences can result in different explanations for illness. •Non-western cultures- explanatory models of illness might include: -Natural causes ( bacteria, viruses, climate, environment) -Social world ( punishment for behavior or negative social interactions) -Supernatural ( ancestral spirits or deities)What are symptoms and expressions of illness?•Can be unique for different cultures. -"Cultural bound syndromes" occur in specific societies and have a constellation of symptoms. -Example: Shenjing shuario (weakness of the nerves) is caused by decreased energy that reduces the function of vital organs and lowers resistance to disease. •Symptoms: fatigue, weakness, dizziness and memory loss.What does taboo mean?•Certain illnesses or behaviors that are characteristics of illness may be stigmatizing and are often not revealed to healthcare professionals. -May deny symptoms and decide not to seek treatment -Mental illness(schizophrenia or depression) -Behavior disorders in children (ADHD, Autism) -STD's (Herpes, syphilis) -Potentially fatal disease (HIV, EBOLA)What are common attributes to culture?-Culture is learned •Not limited to members who share the same origins. •Anyone who shares certain roles, values and norms •Culture is determined by self identification and most people are a mix of more than 1 culture.True/False: Culture is changeableTrue: -Cultures are constantly changing as people adapt to the environment and technical innovations. -The globalization and the influence of diverse culture groupsWhat are the 5 Steps in attributes and criteria?1.Individualism versus Collectivism 2. Power Distance 3. Masculinity versus Femininity 4. Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation 5. ReligionWhat is the difference between Individualism vs. Collectivism?•Place value on the degree of closeness and the structure of social interactions, as well as where loyalties lie -Immediate family or extended clan •Concept of Self -Interdependent- self worth viewed in relation to others -Independent- Individual self worth (US, Western Europe)What is Power Distance?•Acceptance of an unequal distribution of power as legitimate from the clients point of view of the less powerful. •Cultures with more equal distribution of power -Opinions will be heard -Right to criticize those in powerWhat is Theoretical Link?•Leininger (Cultural Care Diversity) -Concepts of emic and etic approach to understand behaviors. -EMIC: understand from within culture •(Insider's viewpoint) -ETIC: application of constructs exterior to the culture to discover universal characteristics common to all - *Use of both approaches could lead to a more responsive approach to caring.