NUR 208

Excess death can be defined by
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The purpose of Healthy People 2030 is to:Evaluate accomplishments for years 2020-2030A healthcare worker planning a research project related to teenage pregnancy in his community would include in the initial assessment the health status of the target population. Health status could be best evaluated by the examination of the...birth rate, access to health care, and death rateThe healthcare worker teaches a group of new parents about the "back to sleep" program, which is directed toward the reduction of SIDS by:placing the baby on its back in the cribHealthy People 2030 endorses the completion of a high school education primarily to enable a person to...make healthy lifestyle choicesHealthy People 2030 is published by the:Department of Health and Human ServicesInfant mortality rates are based on infant deaths that occurbefore one year of age, per 1000 live birthsAlthough the life expectancy has increased, Healthy People 2030 will focus on the older adult's need for:maintenance of independent lifestylesInformation about morbidity and mortality gives the healthcare worker data to identify:high-risk age groups for certain diseases or hazardsA major cause of death for children under the age of 1 year is...congenital abnormalitiesThe health care worker advises a young woman who is 7 weeks pregnant to include folic acid supplements in her diet in order to:reduce the incidence of congenital malformationsGuidelines for "baby-friendly" hospitals includeEncouragement to breastfeed for the first year of lifeThe statistic widely used to compare the health status of different populations isinfant mortalityA healthcare worker who is planning a health education program for geriatric adults based on the goals of Healthy People 2030 would include:Fall preventionThe role of the professional nurse has evolved to includeforming legislation for policies and practices related to healthcareAdults over the age of 65 can significantly reduce their health risk by:Getting their annual vaccines for influenza and pneumoniaThe new topic areas in the Healthy People guidelines establish in 2017 for consideration for Healthy People 2030 include:Remove obstacles to health Address structural and systemic prejudice and discrimination Develop policies and practices that promote health equity including preventive care Create healthy physical, social, and economic environmentsCriteria used to measure health related concepts are referred to asHealth indicatorsLife expectancy at birth in the United States is above80 yearsIn addition to injuries, the leading causes of death in adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 arehomicide and suicideChanges in healthcare delivery systems have been influenced primarily byInstitution of various systems to provide cost-effective health careThe purpose of the state/national government program of Medicaid is to providemedical care of the basis of need or povertyA student is preparing a report on the history of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program would acquire the most useful information from:the Federal RegisterThe Human Genome Project has the potential to reduce healthcare costs by assisting healthcare providers to:detect illnesses before they become chronicThe Tax Equity Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 established the development ofDiagnosis-related groups (DRGs)The scope of practice for nursing is stipulated bythe nurse practice actAn informed consent form requires that:the nurse signs as a witness that the patient received the necessary informationThe roles of the nurse have changes as a results of the national healthcare focus onillness prevention and health maintenanceA diagnosis-related group is:a medical condition classification system that determines what Medicare will pay for healthcare servicesProspective payment systems for healthcare services...Provide payment based on flat predetermined rates regardless of actual costTo conform to the national trend in healthcare, healthcare agencies of the future may need to depend on:Nurses to plan and implement self-care education programsStandards of practice are the foundations for...Consumer protection lawsThe Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) provides for...confidentiality of medical informationThe Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 caused controversy because it coverage for 32 million uninsured personsThe Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 provided money for the development of:Skilled nursing facilities Home health agencies Day care centersThe Patient Bill of Rights ensures that all patients may:Select their healthcare provider Take part in treatment decisions Expect confidentiality Utilize channels for complaintPolitical action committees (PACs) can influence legislation by:Provide lobbying Selecting candidates to run for office Creating an awareness of the need for new legislation Introducing legislation themselvesThe nursing theorist that proposed a holistic view of healthcare in the 1960s was:Martha RogersCultural competence in healthcare is demonstrated by:adapting care to meet cultural needsThe home healthcare worker is aware that the development of initiative may be delayed in a German family that practices what kind of parenting style?authoritarianWhen caring for an 8 hour postpartum Chinese patient who adheres to the cultural philosophy that pregnancy is a "cold" condition, the healthcare worker will remember to...Turn up the thermostatThe culturally competent healthcare worker helping a Hmong family dress the recently deceased family member will be careful to...prevent metal from touching the deceasedThe healthcare worker caring for a 3 month old Korean child hospitalized for dehydration would ask the parent's permission prior to:Assessing the fontanelIn planning the information sent to the diet kitchen for a Hindu patient, the healthcare worker would make a note to prohibit...all meat dishesThe Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) promotes...culturally competent health careThe healthcare worker assesses a new patient for the use of alternative therapies. Such remedies have become widely used because these protocols:have become very popular as they focus on health promotionThe young female healthcare worker who is giving admission information to an elderly Muslim man feels he is ignoring her because he:looks at the floor rather than at herThe culturally competent healthcare worker will inquire if the Native American patient would call his own folk healer, which is the:shamanThe use of silence in conversation can mean different things depending on the culture. Silence indicates agreement in what culture?RussianCulture affects broad areas of:Discipline measures Parenting styles Health treatment Food preferencesComplementary and alternative medicine modalities include:Guided imagery Acupuncture Energy healingFamily can be defined as:A basic human social systemA healthcare worker assesses ethnocentrism in a patient when the patient says:"White Anglo-Saxons will always set the civilization standard."A Spanish speaking 6 year old who has started first grade in an English speaking school spends most of her time alone and seems helpless and unable to function in this new environment. This situation ss an indication of:Culture shockThe family systems theory proposes that:Family functions are interconnected, so what happens to one family member affects the entire familyAn example of a blended family is one made up of:A mother, her children, and the stepfatherWhen an Asian dinner guest startles his Western host by belching loudly to show appreciation of the meal this behavior is an example of:cultural relativismThe healthcare worker would advice parents who are in the process of divorce to support their adolescent children by:Encouraging their pursuit of own interestsA mother with a 6 month old infant says "I want to go back to work, but I don't want there to be a problem since I'll have less time to spend with the baby." The best response should be:"Let's talk about childcare options that will be best for the baby."The home healthcare worker assesses cultural assimilation when:An Asian woman living in Texas wears blue jeans and bootsBecause age differences between siblings may affect family dynamics, there is more affection and less rivalry and hostility between siblings whose ages differ by:5 or more yearsThe laissez-faire parenting style...allows children to regulate their own activity; sees parenting role as a resource rather than a role modelThe healthcare worker designing culturally competent care will employ interventions that:Go beyond the awareness of similarities and differences to implementing care that is sensitiveStudies suggest that viewing violent television programs or playing violent video games may cause...Release of dopamine, which affects attention and learningIn the launching state of the growth and development of the family unit, the focus of the family will be on..Maintaining a stable home base as children matureParents tell the school nurse that their second grade child watches television about 4 hours a day. When discussing this issue with the parents, the nurse would best advise the parent that:Parents need to supervise the amount and type of television programs their children watchThe culturally competent healthcare worker is aware that when caring for members of a culturally diverse population, care must focus on...overcoming their own cultural barriers to avoid stereotypingA distressed mother of a 2-year-old is at her "wit's end" with the toddler's desire to do activities that may be dangerous. The health-care worker counsels the parent that to assist the child with the development of autonomy, the parent should:allow independent activity in a safe environmentA child who has a brother or a sister in the family unit will have the support to develop:concepts of social interactionUsing family development theory of Duvall as a basis, the health-care worker counsels a couple expecting their first baby that in addition to integrating the child into the family unit, the couple should examine:How they will help each other with household choresThe Family Apgar scoring system to assess family function was created by...Gabriel SmilksteinAltered sleep patterns, disorganized eating patterns, and social isolation in a 13-year-old who is very involved in social networking could be symptoms of:Facebook depressionThe Children's Television Act of 1991 mandated that television networks:censor the content of programs being aired during prime timeRobert Havighurst designed a developmental theory for the learning of developmental tasks for persons oflate adulthood ageWhile talking with the upset and tearful family of a patient newly diagnosed with a chronic illness, the health-care worker asks, "When something is bothering you, what do you do?" This should be interpreted as:part of assessing the family's coping skillsAfter the death of a child, what might the parents exhibit toward the surviving children?overprotectivenessThe health-care worker points out to the family of a hospitalized child evidence that the facility supports family-centered health care by such practices as:expanded or totally open visiting hoursSelected video games with a flickering frequency on the screen can trigger:seizuresThe parents of two children, ages 7 and 2, are concerned about the language development of their 2-year-old. They tell the health-care worker that their older child began talking in two- or three-word phrases by age 2, but their younger child is still using mostly one-word sentences. The best response by the health-care worker is:"First born children generally have a larger vocabulary and better conversational skills at an earlier age."The changes that have occurred to the traditional nuclear family over the past 40 years include:Decreased daily availability of the father Dual Career parents Expectation that children be more independentIn order to make an effective cultural assessment of a family dealing with a child with a terminal illness, the health-care worker must consider:Socioeconomic status Religious practices Health beliefs Significance of the disease to the familyThe health-care worker uses as a basis for his or her interventions with children the developmental theory from theorist...which is based on the mastery of developmental tasks at specific ages.Erik EriksonFamilies who have poor communication among members, who tend to be isolated from the community, and who have inconsistent rules are labeled asdysfunctionalThe theorist who proposed a psychosocial theory that human development occurs as a result of interactions among the environment, culture, and the individual was:Daniel LevinsonThe characteristic common to all developmental models is that...development is a continuous process throughout the lifespan.A school-age child who is helping his father wash the car is told by his father that he is leaving "streaks all over the windows." The child feels his father thinks he's stupid for not being able to wash windows correctly. This incorporation of "being stupid" into the child's self-concept illustrates an example of:the looking glass selfThe function of Freud's defense mechanism is to:relieve anxietyA 73-year-old man scheduled for surgery tells the health-care worker that if things do not go well during surgery, he has lived a full life and has no regrets. The health-care worker recognizes that this statement is consistent with:achievement of the developmental task of integrity described by Erikson.When the driver who is stopped for speeding tells the officer that he was rushing to an important appointment, this is an example of the defense mechanism of:RationalizationTo promote a sense of industry in a hospitalized school-age child, the health-care worker should:ask the child to help pick up all the stuffed toys in the playroom.According to the theory of Lawrence Kohlberg, the health-care worker can anticipate that the moral development of a 2-year-old will follow the preconventional pattern by:obeying the rules to avoid punishmentThe behavior most characteristic of the concrete operations stage of cognitive development is:thought processes become increasingly logical and coherentBehavior modification is basically designed to:alter current behavior patternsAccording to the language/culture developmental theory of Lev Vygotsky, preschool-age children guide their own behavior by the use of:inner languageA woman whose husband retired 6 months ago says that he is "driving me crazy" and is "underfoot all the time." These complaints indicate that the wife is in the retirement developmental stage of:DisenchantmentThe best advice to parents who want to encourage autonomy in their toddler would be to:encourage the toddler do things for himselfMaslow's hierarchy of needs states that basic physiological needs must be met before the individual can reach full potential. An example of a physiological need being met is:drinking eight glasses of water a day and following a well-balanced dietAccording to Kohlberg, children develop moral reasoning as they mature. Which action is most characteristic of a school-age child's stage of moral development?Rules are followed to gain recognitionWhen the father of a 12-year-old says, "I must find some way to get my son to become serious about school. He just seems to want to play all the time." The parent is in the __________ stage of parenting behaviors described by Erik Erikson.integrativeA 10-year-old child has demonstrated exceptional spelling ability in several school and community contests and is recognized in his school by teachers and peers for his ability. He believes he can win the state championship. This situation is representative of the concept of:mastery of environment; match between ideal and actual self (Rogers).Psychodynamic developmental theories focus on resolution or development of:personality traits psychological challengesWhat are major characteristic(s) of a self-actualized person?Understands reality Makes judgements based on evidence Is creativeAccording to Freud's theory, which stage should the nurse include while educating the parents about a preschooler?PhallicA nursing instructor is explaining to a group of nursing students that preschoolers often exhibit the Electra complex during their psychosocial development. At which stage of Freud's theory is the Electra complex seen?PhallicWhich statement describes the latency stage of Freud's psychoanalytic model of personality development?During this stage, sexual urges are repressed and channeled into productive activities.Which stage describes the Oedipus complex, according to Freud's theory?Stage 3What type of development is described under Freud's theory?Psychosexual developmentAccording to Freud, which must occur before an individual is able to have a mature adult sexual relationship?Conflict resolutionA nurse is recollecting Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development. What is the characteristic of the oral stage?"In the oral stage, the infant realizes that he or she is a separate individual."Which component of the human personality, according to Freud, allows an individual to judge reality accurately?EgoA nurse is recollecting Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development. What are the characteristics of the phallic stage, as per this model? Select all that apply."In this stage, a girl may experience feelings of penis envy." "In this stage a child may developing an Oedipal complex. "In this stage, the genitals are the focus of pleasure."A nurse is recollecting Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development. What are the characteristics of the genital stage according to this model? Select all that apply."The sexual urges are directed outside of the family circle." "Unresolved sexual conflicts resurface during this stage." "An individual may resolve sexual conflicts at this stage."A nurse is examining different situations that represent the superego component of human personality, as per Sigmund Freud. Which situations accurately represent superego? Select all that apply.A client having a craving for fruits does not steal them from the next client because that client needs it more. A client controls the urge to eat candy because he or she knows it will affect blood sugar levels. A client experiencing a stomach ache refrains from stealing medications from a friend because it's illegal.A nursing student gives different examples representing the components of human personality, according to Sigmund Freud. Which examples mentioned by the nursing student represent the component ego? Select all that apply."A client is attracted to the nurse in charge but does not make any moves because there are other clients in the same ward." "A client with insomnia wants to take an extra sleeping pill but refrains from doing so because the caregivers are present." "A client wants to eat junk food but does not order it because the dietician is keeping track of his or her weight."A nurse is evaluating different situations on the basis of the components of human personality as mentioned by Sigmund Freud. Which situations represent the id component? Select all that apply.A client feels nauseous; there he or she leaves work midway to go to a healthcare facility A client wishes to go home and therefore clips out of the healthcare facility quietly without anyone noticing A client experiencing pain takes pain medication prescribed to a family memberArrange the stages of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development in its correct order.1. Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic 4. Latency 5. GenitalThe nurse is examining different statements that represent the stages of psychosexual development, according to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development. Which statement indicates that the individual is aged between 6 to 12 years?The individual focuses on educational and social accomplishmentsAccording to Sigmund Freud's developmental theory, which developmental age is called the latent stage?Middle SchoolWhich age is considered the phallic stage according to Sigmund Freud's developmental theory?3-6 years oldWhich stage of the development should the nurse document for an infant when using Freud's theory of psychosexual development?OralAccording to Freud, which is a source of pleasure for a toddler-age client that the nurse should educate parents about in regards to normal growth and development?Anal zoneAccording to Freud, which aspect of one's life helps in the development of personality?The need for sensual pleasureA 9-month-old infant who appears well-nourished, alert, and happy is brought to the well-baby clinic for a routine physical examination. Using Freud's psychosexual stages of development, the nurse determines that the infant is in which stage?Oral-sensory stageAt what age is a client in Freud's phallic stage of psychosexual development and Erikson's psychosocial phase of initiative versus guilt?3-5 yearsA 68-year-old client with a new ileostomy remarks to the nurse, It will be difficult for my wife to care for a helpless old man. Which conflict according to Erikson does this comment exhibit?Integrity versus despairAccording to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, which task does the nurse recognize as the chief psychosocial task of preschoolers?Control over bodily functionsAccording to Erikson, which need would nurses focus care on for the middle-aged adult?ProductiveAn 85-year-old client is alert and able to participate in care. According to Erikson, which developmental stage will the client need to adjust to?Generativity vs StagnationWhich might an individual experience in Erikson's initiative versus guilt stage? Select all that apply.Pretends and tries out new roles May develop a superego or a conscience Fantasizes and imagines discovering the environmentAccording to Erikson's theory, at which age would a child develop self-control and independence?18 months to 3 yearsWhich would the nurse anticipate when assessing a preschool-age child, according to Erikson's developmental stages?Having highly imaginative thoughtsWhich stage of Erikson's theory focuses on the needs of an infant?Trust vs MistrustAccording to Erikson's stages of life, which is the stage of development when a child begins walking, feeding, and using the toilet?Autonomy vs Shame and DoubtA 10-year-old child has been working on earning all of the scouting badges. Which of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development is this child achieving?IndustryIn which stage of Erikson's theory does the child initiate self-care activities?Autonomy vs Shame and DoubtA 70-year-old man with a history of depression has few interests since retirement. He says, I feel useless and unneeded. Based on Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, which outcome is occurring?DespairBased on Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, which parental behavior is interfering with a 9-year-old's achievement of her or his developmental task?Gives excessive negative feedback about quality of school projectAccording to Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, which school-aged child is at risk for failing his developmental task?Child B waits for is mother to finish his school science projectThe registered nurse is teaching a nursing student about Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. To which age group does industry versus inferiority apply?6-11 yearsAccording to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, which would the nurse include in the plan of care for a young adult client who is hospitalized?he importance of having support from the client's peersErikson's Stages1. Trust vs Mistrust 2. Autonomy vs Shame 3. Initiative vs Guilt 4. Industry vs Inferiority 5. Identity vs Role Confusion 6. Intimacy vs isolation 7. Generativity vs Stagnation 8. Integrity vs DespairWhich stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development would the nurse observe in a preschooler?PreoperationalWhich situation indicates that the child has reached the concrete operations stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?The child is able to understand that the volume, length, or shape of an object remains the same despite a change in their physical appearance.Which statement is a characteristic of the concrete operations stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?A child is able to describe a process without actually doing it.According to Piaget, during which developmental stage is the pediatric client egocentric?Early childhoodAccording to Piaget's theory, which of these statements would be provided regarding a 4-year-old child? Select all that apply.The child will only be able to consider his own point of view The child will consider that inanimate objects may be alive.Which period of Piaget's theory explains animism in a child?Period IIThe nurse is using Piaget's theory to assess the cognitive development in a child. Which age most likely correlates a child who has reached a developmental milestone grasping the concept of conservation of numbers for the first time?5 yearsWhich is the similarity between the formal operations period and the preoperational period according to Piaget's theory?Both periods explain the idea of egocentric thought in an individual.When the health-care worker praises a child for eating all of the meal and expresses disappointment when the child does not eat, the health-care worker is following the behavioral theory of...Skinner