Time-and-Motion Study

Primary goal: to improve effectiveness/efficiency of job performance. They encompass a large # of techniques. Which is chosen depends on the purpose of the JA.

Terms in this set (...)

Work Sampling
-Method of gathering observations about one of more workers over time
-Chart of all activities is drawn up before the study
-Frequencies of activities gathered over time
-Relative frequencies then converted into percentages to estimate relative amount of time the worker spends on each category
-Can use real person or cameras
Standard Setting
-Setting time standards can be useful in promoting efficiency/effectiveness
-Often used in incentive systems
-Useful for comparing different methods of accomplishing a task
Stopwatch Time Study (Standard setting technique)
-JA watches incumbents perform task and records how long it takes to complete task/portions of task
-Many repetitions recorded
-Measure of central tendency (mean, median, mode) taken as representative for time completion
-Standard time is based on representative time, observer's rating, and allowances for downtime and unavoidable delays (what the company expects from an average competent/conscientious worker)
Predetermined Time Systems (Standard setting technique)
-No observation necessary
-Standard time values taken from prior research, added to time values of elemental movements
Industry Standard Data (Standard setting technique)
-Uses standard time data from previous analyses, typically within an industry
-Uses task/task elements to synthesize tasks and jobs (non elemental motions like PTS)
Graphs and Flowcharts
-Method of externalizing sequence of events
-There are several standardized systems for creating flowcharts
-Notes distance and time taken
-Sequence of events is shown and summarized on chart
Micromotion Analysis
-Starts with one step of job/task and breaks it down into elemental motions
-There is a standard set of terminology for describing elemental motions (each element is called a therblig)
--Each therblig has a standard symbol/color used to chart sequence of motions in a task
Recording Techniques
-Often use film, video,and other recording technology to create records of how a task is completed
-Common to use slow-motion photography to make precise estimates of the times of various motions
-Time-lapse used to see an hour's work go by in 4 minutes
Cons of time-and-motion study
-Ridiculed for excessive emphasis on efficiency (not productivity)
-Psychologically tricky- workers may refuse to meet standard (because management may revise standard, rather than increasing pay)
Pros of time-and-motion study
-Increase in efficiency allows companies to be a lot more profitable (shovel example-pg. 32-33)
-Allows for design of robots/machines to take over dangerous/stressful tasks from people