# MAR 370: Exam 2 Review

Tiger sharks & bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia
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Terms in this set (76)
Whales carry nutrients, especially nitrogen, from the depths where they feed back to the surface via their feces. This waste strongly enhances productivity of fisheries, scientists have found. They've called their discovery a "whale pump," reversing the assumption that whales accelerate loss of nutrients to the bottom.
Scenario 1: Seals eat commercially important fish.
-There are more fish if there are less seals.

Scenario 2: Seals eat predators of commercially important fish.
-There are more predators if there are less seals.

Scenario 3: The food web is more complicated than that.
-The effects of taking some number of seals out of the ecosystem are difficult to predetermine.
A trophic cascade where the primary producers will always control the increase/decrease of the energy in the higher trophic levels.

This food web relies on the availability and limitation of resources.

All populations will experience growth if there is initially a large amount of nutrients.

ex: El Niño causes coastal upwellings that bring cold, nutrient-rich water from below the thermocline up to the surface.
A habitat area essential to the conservation of a listed species, though the area need not actually be occupied by the species at the time it is designated.

ex: Steller Sea Lion critical habitat provides protection from potential competition for important prey species in waters adjacent to rookeries and important haulouts.