Biology Ch. 14-19
Terms in this set (81)
Approx. what is the current size of the human population?
Carrying capacity does not change over time
The graph above shows the population size at which a population can most effectively be utilized for natural resource?
None of the above is correct
Which of the following was discovered as a result of the fruit fly life- extension experiment?
None if these is true of a type 1 species
Which one of the following characteristics is TRUE about a Type 1 species, such as the giant tortoise?
In the age pyramids depicted above, the country on the left could be .... While the country on the right could be ...
None of the above all are part of an organisms life history
A life history of an organisms does NOT consists of the organism's
All of the above are mechanisms by which humans have avoided reaching their carrying capacity
Which of the following is NOT a mechanisms by which humans have so far avoided growth beyond their carrying capacity?
What factor would MOST LIKLEY influence an environments carrying capacity for field mice?
60 individuals added
A population of meadow voles has an annual per capita birth rate of 0.08 and an annual per capita death rate of 0.02 Estimate the number of individuals added to or lost from a population of 1000 individuals in one yr.
None of the above is correct; exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely
Exponential growth can continue indefinitely only if:
The population stays the same.
The graph above shows the population size at which a population can most effectively be utilized for natural resources. What appears to happen when the population reaches it's carrying capacity?
If there are 500 individuals in a population at the start of the year and during the year 125 offspring are produced in that population then the annual birth rate is
The study of the relationship between all living organisms and their envviroment
If both populations are stable the pair of elephants and the pair of rabbits will leave the same number of offspring that survive to become adults
On average which leaves more offspring that survived to become adults and reproduce?
The growth rate will approach zero
In a population exhibiting logistic growth the rate of population growth is the greatest when N is...
The carrying capacity
The number of individuals that can be supported in a given habitat is?
The max sustainable yield for a population is a useful management guideline for harvesting plant products such as timber but is not helpful for managing animal populations
Which of the following statements about Matt sustainable yield is incorrect?
Increased egg numbers
Two different types of habitats sites where predation is high and sites where predation is low. Which of the following life history characteristics would you expect to evolve in a guppy population living in a higher population site?
Lower after the organism survive be on the earliest age groups
The death rate of organisms in a population exhibiting a type three survivorship curve is?
Growth for reproduction
Which of the following is a major trade off in life histories?
Cannot weed out from a population any alleles that do not reduce an individuals relative reproductive success even if alleles increase an individuals risk of dying
It is a measure of how quickly the individuals in a population age
Which of the following statements about the hazard factor of population is incorrect?
Has been achieved using laboratory selection for delayed reproduction
A population pyramid
Represents the number of individuals in various age groups in a population
In developing countries much larger proportions of the population are in the youngest age groups
A primary difference between the age pyramids of industrialization and developing countries is that
It will exceed 7.5 billion if the current rate of increasing continues
Which statement best describes expectations for the world's human population by the year 2015?
All the living organisms and nonliving materials
A ecosystem consists of ___in a given area?
The average rainfall. The average temperature. The seasonal variability in temperature . The seasonal variability in rainfall.
The earth's largest terrestrial ecosystems the biomes are defined primarily by?
The angle at which the sunlight hits the earth leads to a given amount of solar energy being spread over the smaller area at the equator than the poles.
Why is it hotter at the equator than the poles
The ocean currents in the northern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise direction so water off the coast of California has just come in from the cold North while the water off the coast of New York has just come from the warm south
Why do beaches on the west coast of the United States have colder water then beaches on the East Coast?
Consume primarily carnivores
The 10% rule of energy conservation efficiency
Explains why big fierce animals are so rare. Explains why the biomass of herbivores must exceed that of carnivores. Limits the length of food chains. Suggests that 90% of what an organisms eats is used in cellular respiration or is lost as feces.
Primarily through soil dwelling bacteria that "fix" nitrogen by attacking it to other atoms
Nitrogen enters the food chain...
It may be occupied by two species as long as they are not competitors
Which of the following statements about an organisms niche is incorrect
Competition often leads to character displacement which remains even after direct competition is reduced
The "ghost of competition past" refers to the fact that
Plants cannot move to escape predators and so must develop their deterrents
Chemical defenses are more common among plants than animals because
Froth at the mouth so as to increase the likelihood that the rabies causing virus is passed on to another host.
One species benefits while the other neither benefits nor is harmed
Is responsible for all the beautiful flowers in the world. Is responsible for the nectar production by plants. Reveals that both biotic and abiotic resources can serve as selective forces. Can produce insect with a tongue as long as it's body
Primary succession begins with no life or soil whereas secondary succession begins with both
The chief difference between primary and secondary succession is that
Play an unusual important role in determining the species composition in a habitat
The direct economic benefits to human such as medicine and food. The symbolic value that elements of the natural world can provide. The aesthetic value it holds. Its potential for helping humans understand the processes that gave rise to the diversity we see
Biodiversity is considered important because of
Species endemism degree of threat
Biodiversity hotspots are defined by which to criteria
Has a higher percentage of endemic plants and animals than any comparably sized area on earth
Madagascar is unusually important to the conservation because it
The equilibrium number of insect species was a function of island size and distance from the mainland
By fumigating several islands in the Florida Keys with methyl bromide EO Wilson and Daniel Simborloft demonstrate that
The composition of species on an island may change but the number of species present remains the same
When Island has the equilibrium number of species
It has a narrowed dispersal range
Which of the following attributes of a species might render to it especially susceptible to extinction
What bird once the most abundant in North America was hunted to extinction by shooting and trapping during the 1800s
Between 5 million and 100 million
How many species do biologists estimate to be currently existing on earth
Which of the following is currently leading the cause of extinction
They frequently have no predators in their new habitat and grow unchecked
Exotic species can disrupt ecosystems because
The burning of fossil feels release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Even though there is a carbon cycle carbon dioxide levels around the world seem to be rising which of the following best explains why this is so
Without the protection against solar radiation provided by the ozone rates of skin cancer are likely to increase
Ozone depletion is cause for concern because
Fragmented habitats can support only in small populations of the species living in them
Which of the following statements about habitat loss is correct
Is a species whose preservation result in the preservation of many other species as well
The umbrella species
What are the embryonic precursors to leaves in a seedling called
Parenchyma. Collenchyma. Sclerenchyma.
All of the following are ground tissue cells
The plan is anchored in the soil. The plan obtains water and nutrients from the soil. And the roots of the plant obtain oxygen from the soil.
What role does soil play in the life of terrestrial plants
Which of the following is most important in providing structural support in vascular plants
Veins of vascular tissue. Nonphotosynthetic epidermal cells. A few layers of photosynthetic cells. And a stomata.
Leaves are generally been with a three layer structure that includes all of the following
A waxy nonliving layer that minimizes water loss
The cuticle of a leaf is
ATP is used to import more minerals into root cells
When mineral concentrations are higher inside the root Cell then in the soil
Sunlight water carbon dioxide oxygen and minerals
For a typical green plant to thrive it needs
This soil packed so tightly that the amount of oxygen reaching the roots is limited
Plants do not grow well in pure clay soils because
The enzyme known as ____ catalyzes the fixation of nitrogen in nitrogen fixing bacteria
Osmosis; root hairs
The process of water absorption by plant roots generally relies on ______across the membranes of cells in______
Evaporation from the leaves of a tree pulls water up from the roots as an unbroken column throughout the entire height of the tree this feature is possible because which characteristics of water
Sieve tubes that made up the phylum
Sugars produced in the leaves of a plant are transported elsewhere in the plant through
Tends to be particularly common in a population growing in a marginal habitat
Asexual reproduction in plants
Are the products of asexual reproduction
Most of the trees or shrubs in backyard gardens
In angiosperms the ______ are the specialized reproductive organs whose main function is to bring together the sperm and egg
Each angiosperm pollen grain contains how many sperm cells
Mosses and firms rely on liquid water for fertilization where as angiosperms angiosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization
Mosses and ferns differ in their reproductive strategies from gymnosperms & angiosperms in which of the following ways
The common term for the action of transferring pollen grains from an anther onto a stigma is
Bats. Bumblebees. Moths. & Beatles.
Flowering plants attract animals to assist in pollination. Which of the following animal groups is a common pollinator of flowering plants
Fusion of one sperm cell with the egg and another with two nuclei of the endosperm forming cell
Double fertilization in angiosperm plants refers to the
Fruits are conspicuously colored. Fruits taste good.
Which of the following is a likely way in which plants increase dispersal of their fruit
Meiosis ;pollination; fertilization; embryo formation
Which of the following is the proper sequence of events when a flowering plant reproduces
Apical meristems increased lenght vascular cambium increases girth.
For angiosperms which of the following statements about group is most correct
When the shoot emerges from the soil
When, after seed germination, does photosynthesis begin?
The scientific term for wood is