Newman AMSCO APUSH Period 2

Act of Toleration
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Terms in this set (72)
tobacco farmsAs Tobacco prices fell, rice and indigo became the most profitable crops. (p. 37)John CabotFirst Englishman to explore lands in North America which England would later settle in the early 1600's. (p. 25)JamestownIn 1607, the first permanent English colony in America was founded at this location. The Virginia Company, was a a joint-stock company chartered by England's King James I. (p. 25)Captain John SmithBecause of his forceful leadership, Jamestown barely survived its first five years. (p. 25)John RolfeHe helped Jamestown develop a new variety of tobacco which became popular in Europe and became a profitable crop. (p. 25)PuritansGroup of dissenters that wanted to purify the Church of England. In 1630 they founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony at Boston. (p. 26)PilgrimsThey were radical dissenters to the Church of England. They moved to Holland, then in 1620, they sailed to America on the Mayflower in search of religious freedom. They established a new colony at Plymouth on the Massachusetts coast. (p. 26)MayflowerIn 1620, the boat that the Pilgrims sailed to Plymouth. (p. 26)Plymouth ColonyThis colony was started by the Pilgrims at Plymouth (Massechusetts). In the first winter nearly half of them perished. They were helped by friendly American Indians and celebrated the first Thanksgiving in 1621. (p. 26)John WinthropIn 1630, he led about a thousand Puritans to America and and founded Boston and several other towns. (p. 26)Great MigrationThis movement started because of a civil war in England. Nearly 15,000 settlers came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. (p. 26)VirginiaSir William Berkeley, the royal governor of Virginia use dictatorial powers to govern on behalf of the large planters. (p. 29)Thomas HookerIn 1636, he led a large group of Boston Puritans dissatisfied with the Massachusetts Bay colony to found Hartford, which is now Connecticut. In 1639 they drew up the first written constitution in American history. (p. 30)John DavenportIn 1637, he founded a settlement south of Hartford, by the name of New Haven. (p. 30)ConnecticutIn 1665, New Haven and Hartford joined to form the colony of Connecticut under a royal charter. (p. 30)New HampshireHoping to increase royal control in the colonies, King Charles II separated New Hampshire from Massachusetts in 1679 and made it a royal colony. (p. 31)The CarolinasIn 1663, King Charles II granted eight nobles the Carolinas. In 1729, the Carolinas were split into two royal colonies. In South Carolina, the economy was based on the fur trade and growing food for the West Indies, which led to many plantations. In North Carolina, there were many small tobacco farms and fewer plantations. (p. 32)New YorkIn 1664, King Charles II granted his brother, the Duke of York (future King James II) the land now known as New York. James took control of the Dutch colony that was located there, but the Dutch were treated fairly. James was unpopular because of his taxes and refusal to institute a representative government. Finally in 1683, he agreed to grant broad civil and political rights to the colony. (p. 33)New JerseyThe territory of New York was split. In 1674, land was granted to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Eventually they sold to the Quakers. In 1702, the two Jerseys were combined into a single royal colony, New Jersey. (p. 33)PennsylvaniaIn 1861, the royal family paid a large debt by granting William Penn's father a large parcel of American land. He then formed a colony from the land. (p. 34)DelawareIn 1702, William Penn granted the lower three colonies of Pennsylvania their own assembly. In effect, Delaware became a separate colony, even though its governor was the same as Pennsylvaniaá until the American revolution. (p. 34)GeorgiaIn 1732, Georgia was formed to provide a buffer between wealthy Georgia and Spanish controlled Florida, and to provide a place for the many debtors of England to begin again. (p. 34)James OglethorpeFounder of Georgia's first settlement, Savannah, in 1733. He acted as governor of Georgia and had strict laws which included a ban on rum and slavery. (p. 35)WampanoagsAn American Indian tribe led by Metacom. (p. 31)MetacomThis American Indian chief was known to the colonists as King Philip. He joined together the Native American tribes to fight the colonists in King Philip's War, a war that lasted from 1675 to 1676. (p. 31)King Philip's WarFrom 1675 to 1676, the American Indian chief Metacom (King Philip), waged a vicious war against the English settlers in southern New England. (p. 31)Mayflower CompactIn 1620, while they were sailing to America on the Mayflower, the Pilgrims created this document that pledged them to make decisions by the will of the majority. It was a rudimentary written constitution. (p. 27)Virginia House of BurgessesIn 1619, just 12 years after the founding of Jamestown, Virginia's colonists organized the first representative assembly in America, the Virginia House of Burgesses. (p. 27)Sir William BerkeleyRoyal Governor of Virginia who favored large plantation owners and did not support or protect smaller farms from Indian raids. He put down Bacon's rebellion in 1676. (p. 29)Bacon's RebellionIn 1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a group of army volunteers that raided Native American villages, fought the governor's forces, and set fire to Jamestown. The rebellion lost momentum when Bacon died of dysentery. The rebellion was caused by the Governor's unfair favoritism of large plantation owners and refusal to protect small farms from Native American raids. (p. 29)Fundamental Orders of ConnecticutIn 1639, the Hartford settlers drew up the first written constitution in America. It established a representative government made up of a legislature elected by the people and a governor chosen by the legislature. (p. 30)New England ConfederationIn 1643, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed a military alliance to deal with the threat from the Native Americans. It lasted until 1684. (p. 31)Frame of Government (1682)In 1682-1683, William Penn provided the Pennsylvania colony with a Frame of Government which guaranteed a representative assembly elected by landowners and a written constitution. (p. 34)corporate coloniesColonies operated by joint-stock companies during the early years of the colonies, such as Jamestown. (p. 24)royal coloniesColonies under the direct authority and rule of the king's government, such as Virginia after 1624. (p. 24)proprietary coloniesColonies under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king, such as Maryland and Massachusetts. (p. 24)Chesapeake ColoniesIn 1632, the area once known as the Virginia colony, has divided into the Virginia and Maryland colony. Maryland became the first proprietary colony. (p. 27)joint-stock companyCorporate colonies, such as Jamestown, were operated by joint-stock companies, at least during the colony's early years. (p. 36)Virginia CompanyEngland's King James I chartered the Virginia Company, a joint-stock company that founded the first permanent English colony in America at Jamestown in 1607. (p. )mercantilismAn economic policy in which the colonies were to provide raw materials to the parent country of growth and profit of the parent country. (p. 35)Navigation ActsBetween 1650 and 1673 England passed a series of acts which establish rules for colonial trade. * Trade to and from the colonies could be carried only by English or colonial-built ships, which could be operated only by English or colonial crews. * All goods imported in the colonies, except some perishables, had to pass through the ports in England. * Specified goods from the colonies could be exported only to England. (p. 35)Dominion of New EnglandJames II wanted to increase royal control in the colonies, so he combined them into larger units and abolished their representative assemblies. The Dominion of New England was combined New York, New Jersey, and the other New England colonies into a single unit. (p. 36)Glorious RevolutionIn 1688, King James II was deposed and replaced with William and Mary. This brought the end to the Dominion of New England, and the colonies operated under their previous structure. (p. 37)indentured servantsYoung people from England under contract with a master who paid for their passage. Worked for a specified period for room and board, then they were free. (p. 28)headright systemA method for attracting immigrants, Virginia offered 50 acres of land to each immigrant who paid for passage to America and to any plantation owner who paid for an immigrants passage. (p. 28)slaveryThe first slaves arrived in the colonies in 1619, they were not slaves for life, but worked for a period of time, like an indentured servant. Then discriminatory laws were passed, slaves and their offspring were kept in permanent bondage. (p. 28)triangular tradeMerchants traded colonist rum for African slaves, African slaves for West Indies sugar cane, and sugar cane was brought back to the colonies to make rum. (p. 37)Middle PassageVoyage from West Africa to the West Indies. It was miserable for the slaves transported and many died. (p. 38)Glorius Revolution 1688-1688 -overthrow of King James II, who was Catholic and wanted to impose corporatism/ absolutism -William & Mary (protestants from Netherlands) put on the English throne *transformation that puts the Crown into place, controlled by the ParliamentBenjamin FranklinAmerican intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.Poor Richard's AlmanacBenjamin Franklin's highly popular collection of information, parables, and advicePhillis WheatleyFirst African American female writer to be published in the United States. Her book Poems on Various Subjects was published in 1773, pioneered African-American literature. One of the most well- known poets in America during her day; first African American to get a volume of poetry published.established churcha church supported by the governmentGreat Awakening (1730s and 1740s)Religious revival that swept the American colonies during which a number of new Protestant churches were established. Participating ministers, most notably Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. A Second Great Awakening arose in the 19th centuryJohnathan EdwardsHelped start great awakening and wrote sinners in the hands of an angry godCotton Matherminister, part of Puritan New England important families, a sholar, one of first americans to pemote vaccination of smallpox when it was believed to be dangerous, strongly believed on witches, encouraged witch trials in salemsocial mobilitythe movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given societyhereditary aristocracyThere was no hereditary aristocracy in the colonies. Their class system was based on economics with wealthy landowners at the top. Craft workers and small farmers made up the majority of the population. (p. 47)John Peter Zenger TrialHe published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.Enlightenmenta movement that emphasized science and reason as guides to help see the world more clearlyTown Meetings in New EnglandMany towns relied upon a New England style of town meetings in which all white, land holding men were allowed to participate in citizen-participation direct democracy.Henry Hudson riverWorking for the Dutch (not British), and Englishman who explored water around New York City, Hudson Bay & Hudson River (p. 35)

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