Chapter 7: Looking to the Future: Goals, Optimism, and Hope

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frustration-aggression hypothesis
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extrinsic goalsprimarily lead to external rewards and approval like wealth, status, fameexpectanciesbeliefs about the probability of something occurring in the futureexpectancy theory of motivation(by Victor Vroom)- specified people tend to most vigorously engage in goal-directed actions when three conditions are metperformance expectancy/ efficacy expectancypeople must expect that they can effectively execute an intended behavioroutcome expectancypeople must expect that this behavior will lead to a certain resultvalencepeople must believe a result is desirableperformance expectancy, outcome expectancy, valence3 conditions of expectancy theorydispositional and learned2 operationalizations of optimismdispositional optimismtendency to believe that outcomes in one's life will be positive, favorable, or desirablelife orientation test5 point scale with 10 items to gauge optimism; positively and negatively worded itemslearned optimismwhen good things happen, attributed to internal, stable, and global causes, whereas they attribute these events to internal, stable, and global causes, whereas they attribute negative events to external, temporary, and situation-specific causeslearned helplessnessa state in which an organism learns that its actions have no effect on outcomes in a situation and typically leads organisms to give up trying to influence their environmentspessimistic explanatory stylewhen bad things happen, people who have fallen into learned helplessness believe the causes of these events are their own fault, will never go away, and will affect most or all areas of their lives; when good things happen, believe it has little to do with them, short lived, or will only affect small area of their livesattributional study questionnaireread descriptions of positive and negative evens and write down what they believe the cause was and rate the cause on the three attributional elementshope theoryCR Snyder used sabbatical year to define hope; noticed almost all the hopeful people share goals, pathways, and agency—when people exemplify these, they are high in hopegoalsanything that an individual wants to get, do, be, accomplish, or experiencepathwaysplan or strategy that people believe will lead to a goal, specifically the perception that these exist, high hope people will have multipleagencythoughts that people have regarding their ability to begin and continue movement on selected pathways toward those goals, believed to motivate people to do the effortful work of pursuing goalstraitbehavior, feeling, or cognition that is consistent and long lastingstatebehavior, feeling, or cognition that is temporary and can change based on a person's situationefficacy expectanciesconcern people's belief that they can perform constructive behaviorsoutcome expectanciesconcern whether behaviors lead to any particular outcome or goaldispositional optimismconcerns people's expectancy about whether they will experience positive outcomes in life, but isn't concerned with what behaviors or strategies they will use to get thereunrealistic optimismalthough being a positive person in general is a good thing, positive expectancies can backfire when they stray too far from realityindependent goalsgoals people pursue to achieve enjoyment for themselvesinterdependent goalsgoals that people pursue to please family or friendsJohn henryismtendency to respond actively to stressors with the expectation that determination and hard work will lead to success