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IU ANATOMY A-215 BRAIN STEM AND CEREBELLUM
Terms in this set (37)
what does the brain stem consist of?
mesencephalon,pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata
what does the brain stem do?
relay center for nervous input, responsible for many basic motor and reflex actions
if there is damage, it could lead to death
parts of the metencephalon
pons and cerebellum
what is the medulla oblongata and what are its parts
part of the myencephlon, consists of pyramids, autonomic nervous system center, lower part of the fourth ventricle
what is the mesencephlon
what are the pyramids?
bilateral ridges in anterior (ventral) side
composed of descending motor neurons
most of the axons cross (dessucate) meaning that they control the opposite side of the body
what are the autonomic nervous system centers
cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory and other centers
what is the cardiac center of the autonomic nervous system? in medulla
center= a group of cell bodies in the CNS
regulate heart rate
what is the vasomotor center of the autonomic nervous system? in medulla
regulates blood pressure by constructing and dilating arterioles
what is the respiratory center of the autonomic nervous system? in medulla
regulates rhythm of breathing
what are the other centers of the autonomic nervous system responsible for? in medulla
vomiting, swallowing, coughing
what is the fourth ventricle?
a cerebral spinal fluid filled space found within the pons and medulla oblongata, it is continuous with central canal of spinal cord
what makes up the pons?
chiefly composed of groups of axons (axon tracts)
upper part of the fourth ventricle
what is the respiratory center responsible for in the pons?
helps control rate and depth of breathing. works with respiratory system in medulla
what is the fourth ventricle continuous with in the pons?
mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct
what is the mesencephalon made up of?
corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles, and mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct
what is the corpora quadrigemina divided into?
superior and inferior colliculi
what is the superior colliculi and how many are there in the corpora quadrigemina?
there are two, it is the visual reflex center for coordinating head movement with what the eye is seeing
what is the inferior colliculi and how many are there in the corpora quadrigemina?
there are two, it is the auditory reflex center for coordinating head movement with what it hears
what are the cerebral punduncles and what do they do?
group of axons (axon tracts) on ventral (anterior) side of midbrain
conduct impulses between higher centers of CNS and brain stem
what is the mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct?
connects third ventricle to fourth ventricle
is the cerebellum part of the brain stem?
how are the hemispheres of the cerebellum connected?
left and right; connected by vermis
what are cerebellar peduncles and what are are the different types?
groups of axons (axon tracts)
divided into: inferior, middle, and superior cerebellar peduncles
what does the inferior cerebellar peduncle do?
connect medulla oblongata and cerebellum
what does the middle cerebellar peduncle do?
connect pons to cerebellum
what does the superior cerebellar peduncle do?
connect midbrain to cerebellum
what are the functions of the cerebellum?
coordinates and 'fine tunes' voluntary skeletal muscle movement
helps to maintain balance and posture
stores memories of previously stored movement patterns
what are the layers of the cranial meninges
dura mater: outermost layer
arachnoid mater: middle layer
pia mater: inner later
what are the layers of the dura mater
outer periosteal layer
inner meningeal layer
( in some areas, the layers are separated and form dural venous sinuses (veins)
what is the subarachnoid space and what does it do?
part of the arachnoid space, contains CSF
what does the pia mater do?
adheres to the brain
what is CSF and what does it do?
cerebral spinal fluid
provide buoyancy for brain and spinal cord
maintains CNS chemical environment
were is CSF made?
ventricles in the brain
formed from the coracoid plexus
what is the coracoid plexus?
specialized blood capillaries and ependymal cells
what does the ventral system consist of?
left and right lateral ventricles, found in left and right cerebral hemispheres and connected to midline
coracoid plexus in each
CSF from each lateral ventricle flows through left and right interventricular foramen to get to the
3rd ventricle (coracoid plexus here) space in diacephalon
mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct in midbrain and CSF flow into the
4th ventricle (coracoid plexus here): 1/2 in pons 1/2 in medulla
central canal of the spinal cord
where does CSF exit the 4th ventricle?
through 3 openings (apertures) into subarachnoid space
then it flows through arachnoid villi (granulations)(fingerlike extensions of arachnoid mater) into dural venus sinus (blood stream)
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