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damage to the peripheral nerves or lower motor tracts; muscles are paralyzed or weak and tone is floppy
thickening of walls of arteries, blood flow is restricted, walls become "hardened", may lead to transient ischemic attack
obstruction to blood flow by clot; fatty material or air bubble that has started in one area and moved
mastication of food-aid in chewing and production of sound-degree of closure changes sound production
muscles of facial expressions (5 and 7)
forms, manipulates and propels food bolus during chewing and swallowing; elevation, depression, extension, and retraction change manner and location of speed/sound production
tongue muscles (9 and 12)
remove food bolus from utensils, maintain food/liquid bolus inside mouth; protrusion, opening, and closing changes manner and location of speech sound production
lip muscles (7 and 9)
open/closes to allow/prevent flow into nasal cavity, foods and liquids into cavity too; too much closure and speech will sound hypo-nasal
soft palate (5, 7, and 9)
expand and contract to change resonance of speech sounds, allow for passage and manipulation of food and liquid boluses during swallowing
pharyngeal muscles (9 and 10)
protection of airway; vibratory source for voiced sounds, problems affect pitch and intensity of voice, inadequate closure results in little or no voice and aspiration
laryngeal musculature (9 and 10)
share competence in common language, "perfect" communication is rare, dependent on age, socioeconomic status, geographical background, ethnicity and gender
place you interact influences how/what you say, person whom you interact with influences how/what you say
damage to motor area of brain or upper motor tracts, muscles are paralyzed or weak and tone is tight
motor-portions of tongues and parotid gland
sensory- sensation and taste posterior 1/3 of tongue
motor- muscles of facial expressions and some glands
sensory- ear and taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue
peripheral nerves that control sensations of head, face, and neck; always referred to in roman numerals
connects right and left brain to allow for communication between hemispheres, forms rood of lateral and third ventricles, damage may result in "split-brain syndrome"
bridge-like structure which links different parts of the brain; relay station for the medulla to higher cortical structures of brain, contains respiratory center
relay station for crossing of motor tracts between spinal cord and brain; contains respiratory, vasomotor and cardiac centers; controls coughing, gagging, swallowing reflexes
lower extension of brain where it connects to the spinal cord, has to do with breathing, digestion, heart rate; has 3 parts, cranial nerves come from here
large openings in occipital bone of cranium; one of several oval apertures in base of skull
located at back of brain that helps coordinate movement (balance and muscle coordination); damage may result in ataxia- could interfere with ability to walk, talk, eat
part of frontal lobe; very important for "higher cognitive functions" and determine of personality
made up of esophagus (upper/lower esophageal sphincter); stomach, small intestines, etc
the food tube where food travels on way to stomach, subs as vibratory source for individuals who have larynx removed
any exchange of info by words, gestures, symbols, sounds, etc; language results in this, any exchange of ideas, involves message transmission and feedback
differences in speech and/or language features that can be attributed to some form of isolation
spoken in appalachian, portions of ohio/tennessee valley
caw/car, ball/boil, fav/five
southern american dialect
spoken primarily north of NYC into the New England states; precise production of vowels
eastern american dialect
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