83 terms

SPA Exam 2

damage to the peripheral nerves or lower motor tracts; muscles are paralyzed or weak and tone is floppy
brain bleeds due to weakening of blood of blood vessel walls
2 causes of hemorrhagic stroke
arteriovenous malformation
sac-like bulging in a weakened artery wall
rare condition of poorly formed tangle of arteries and veins
arteriovenous malformation
3 main causes of ischemic stroke
cerebral arteriosclerosis
thickening of walls of arteries, blood flow is restricted, walls become "hardened", may lead to transient ischemic attack
cerebral arteriosclerosis
obstruction to blood flow by clot; fatty material or air bubble that has started in one area and moved
also blocks blood flow; plaque builds up on site and doesn't travel
mastication of food-aid in chewing and production of sound-degree of closure changes sound production
muscles of facial expressions (5 and 7)
forms, manipulates and propels food bolus during chewing and swallowing; elevation, depression, extension, and retraction change manner and location of speed/sound production
tongue muscles (9 and 12)
remove food bolus from utensils, maintain food/liquid bolus inside mouth; protrusion, opening, and closing changes manner and location of speech sound production
lip muscles (7 and 9)
open/closes to allow/prevent flow into nasal cavity, foods and liquids into cavity too; too much closure and speech will sound hypo-nasal
soft palate (5, 7, and 9)
expand and contract to change resonance of speech sounds, allow for passage and manipulation of food and liquid boluses during swallowing
pharyngeal muscles (9 and 10)
protection of airway; vibratory source for voiced sounds, problems affect pitch and intensity of voice, inadequate closure results in little or no voice and aspiration
laryngeal musculature (9 and 10)
separates two chambers
nasal septum
roof of mouth
hard palate
upper jaw
base of larynx
cricoid cartilage
vibration of vocal folds produces a sound at particular frequency of vibration
sound production
serves as energy/power source for phonation
process by which we shape vocal tone to produce various speech sounds
share competence in common language, "perfect" communication is rare, dependent on age, socioeconomic status, geographical background, ethnicity and gender
cultural identity
place you interact influences how/what you say, person whom you interact with influences how/what you say
damage to motor area of brain or upper motor tracts, muscles are paralyzed or weak and tone is tight
motor-muscles of tongue
hypoglossal (XII)
motor-muscles of shoulder and chest
accessory (XI)
motor and sensation in pharynx, larynx, and viscera
vagus (X)
motor-portions of tongues and parotid gland
sensory- sensation and taste posterior 1/3 of tongue
glossopharyngeal (IX)
sensory- hearing and balance
vestibulocochlear (VIII)
motor- muscles of facial expressions and some glands
sensory- ear and taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue
facial (VII)
motor- eyes
abducens (VI)
motor- muscles of mastication
sensory- head, neck, sinuses, TM
trigeminal (V)
motor- eyes
trochlear (IV)
motor- eyes and pupils
oculomotor (III)
sensory- vision
optic (II)
sensory- smell
olfactory (I)
peripheral nerves that control sensations of head, face, and neck; always referred to in roman numerals
cranial nerves
connects right and left brain to allow for communication between hemispheres, forms rood of lateral and third ventricles, damage may result in "split-brain syndrome"
corpus callosum
bridge-like structure which links different parts of the brain; relay station for the medulla to higher cortical structures of brain, contains respiratory center
nerve pathway of cerebral hemispheres, contains auditory and visual reflex centers
relay station for crossing of motor tracts between spinal cord and brain; contains respiratory, vasomotor and cardiac centers; controls coughing, gagging, swallowing reflexes
medulla oblongata
3 parts of brainstem
medulla oblongata
lower extension of brain where it connects to the spinal cord, has to do with breathing, digestion, heart rate; has 3 parts, cranial nerves come from here
large openings in occipital bone of cranium; one of several oval apertures in base of skull
foramen magnum
divides prefrontal and parietal lobe
lateral fisher
primary motor strip
pre-central (sulcus)
primary sensory (somatic) strip
post-central (sulcus)
divides brain front and back; has to do with touch, pain and temperature
central sulcus
located at back of brain that helps coordinate movement (balance and muscle coordination); damage may result in ataxia- could interfere with ability to walk, talk, eat
damage to parietal lobe-right can cause this; spatial deficits
part of frontal lobe; very important for "higher cognitive functions" and determine of personality
prefrontal cortex
right hemisphere controls?
left side of brain
left hemisphere controls?
right side of brain
lobe concerning auditory comprehension; two located at about ear level
temporal lobe
visual comprehension love; region in back of brain
occipital lobe
memory and sensory integration; located behind frontal lobe at top of brain
parietal lobe
lobe that has to do with personality, motor, and executive functions
frontal lobe
front part of brain
name the four lobes of the brain
allows release of digestive material into intestines; in stomach
pyloric sphincter
made up of esophagus (upper/lower esophageal sphincter); stomach, small intestines, etc
digestive system
made up of trachea, bronchi, and lungs
lower respiratory tract
in pharyngeal cavity; only bone in body that is NOT attached to another bone
hyoid bone
ventricle folds and true vocal folds
throat and esophagus
pharyngeal cavity
lips, tongue, cheeks, teeth, palate
oral cavity
nose and nasal passages
nasal cavity
branch of biology; considers the study of the mechanical functions of living organisms
branch of biology; considers the study of the structure of living things
a brain attack
blood flow is interrupted (clot) within or enroute to the brain
ischemic stroke
the food tube where food travels on way to stomach, subs as vibratory source for individuals who have larynx removed
lower jaw
made up of thyroid
any exchange of info by words, gestures, symbols, sounds, etc; language results in this, any exchange of ideas, involves message transmission and feedback
differences in speech and/or language features that can be attributed to some form of isolation
4 primary dialects of US
african american
spoken pacific to great lakes
general american dialect
spoken in appalachian, portions of ohio/tennessee valley
caw/car, ball/boil, fav/five
southern american dialect
spoken primarily north of NYC into the New England states; precise production of vowels
eastern american dialect
specific phonological rules that differ from general american dialect
"don't get none of..."
done+verb for past tense
han/hand, tess/test
african american dialect