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damage to the peripheral nerves or lower motor tracts; muscles are paralyzed or weak and tone is floppy


brain bleeds due to weakening of blood of blood vessel walls


2 causes of hemorrhagic stroke

arteriovenous malformation

sac-like bulging in a weakened artery wall


rare condition of poorly formed tangle of arteries and veins

arteriovenous malformation

3 main causes of ischemic stroke

cerebral arteriosclerosis

thickening of walls of arteries, blood flow is restricted, walls become "hardened", may lead to transient ischemic attack

cerebral arteriosclerosis

obstruction to blood flow by clot; fatty material or air bubble that has started in one area and moved


also blocks blood flow; plaque builds up on site and doesn't travel


mastication of food-aid in chewing and production of sound-degree of closure changes sound production

muscles of facial expressions (5 and 7)

forms, manipulates and propels food bolus during chewing and swallowing; elevation, depression, extension, and retraction change manner and location of speed/sound production

tongue muscles (9 and 12)

remove food bolus from utensils, maintain food/liquid bolus inside mouth; protrusion, opening, and closing changes manner and location of speech sound production

lip muscles (7 and 9)

open/closes to allow/prevent flow into nasal cavity, foods and liquids into cavity too; too much closure and speech will sound hypo-nasal

soft palate (5, 7, and 9)

expand and contract to change resonance of speech sounds, allow for passage and manipulation of food and liquid boluses during swallowing

pharyngeal muscles (9 and 10)

protection of airway; vibratory source for voiced sounds, problems affect pitch and intensity of voice, inadequate closure results in little or no voice and aspiration

laryngeal musculature (9 and 10)

separates two chambers

nasal septum

roof of mouth

hard palate

upper jaw


base of larynx

cricoid cartilage

vibration of vocal folds produces a sound at particular frequency of vibration


sound production


serves as energy/power source for phonation


process by which we shape vocal tone to produce various speech sounds


share competence in common language, "perfect" communication is rare, dependent on age, socioeconomic status, geographical background, ethnicity and gender

cultural identity

place you interact influences how/what you say, person whom you interact with influences how/what you say


damage to motor area of brain or upper motor tracts, muscles are paralyzed or weak and tone is tight


motor-muscles of tongue

hypoglossal (XII)

motor-muscles of shoulder and chest

accessory (XI)

motor and sensation in pharynx, larynx, and viscera

vagus (X)

motor-portions of tongues and parotid gland
sensory- sensation and taste posterior 1/3 of tongue

glossopharyngeal (IX)

sensory- hearing and balance

vestibulocochlear (VIII)

motor- muscles of facial expressions and some glands
sensory- ear and taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue

facial (VII)

motor- eyes

abducens (VI)

motor- muscles of mastication
sensory- head, neck, sinuses, TM

trigeminal (V)

motor- eyes

trochlear (IV)

motor- eyes and pupils

oculomotor (III)

sensory- vision

optic (II)

sensory- smell

olfactory (I)

peripheral nerves that control sensations of head, face, and neck; always referred to in roman numerals

cranial nerves

connects right and left brain to allow for communication between hemispheres, forms rood of lateral and third ventricles, damage may result in "split-brain syndrome"

corpus callosum

bridge-like structure which links different parts of the brain; relay station for the medulla to higher cortical structures of brain, contains respiratory center


nerve pathway of cerebral hemispheres, contains auditory and visual reflex centers


relay station for crossing of motor tracts between spinal cord and brain; contains respiratory, vasomotor and cardiac centers; controls coughing, gagging, swallowing reflexes

medulla oblongata

3 parts of brainstem

medulla oblongata

lower extension of brain where it connects to the spinal cord, has to do with breathing, digestion, heart rate; has 3 parts, cranial nerves come from here


large openings in occipital bone of cranium; one of several oval apertures in base of skull

foramen magnum

divides prefrontal and parietal lobe

lateral fisher

primary motor strip

pre-central (sulcus)

primary sensory (somatic) strip

post-central (sulcus)

divides brain front and back; has to do with touch, pain and temperature

central sulcus

located at back of brain that helps coordinate movement (balance and muscle coordination); damage may result in ataxia- could interfere with ability to walk, talk, eat


damage to parietal lobe-right can cause this; spatial deficits


part of frontal lobe; very important for "higher cognitive functions" and determine of personality

prefrontal cortex

right hemisphere controls?

left side of brain

left hemisphere controls?

right side of brain

lobe concerning auditory comprehension; two located at about ear level

temporal lobe

visual comprehension love; region in back of brain

occipital lobe

memory and sensory integration; located behind frontal lobe at top of brain

parietal lobe

lobe that has to do with personality, motor, and executive functions

frontal lobe

front part of brain


name the four lobes of the brain


allows release of digestive material into intestines; in stomach

pyloric sphincter

made up of esophagus (upper/lower esophageal sphincter); stomach, small intestines, etc

digestive system

made up of trachea, bronchi, and lungs

lower respiratory tract

in pharyngeal cavity; only bone in body that is NOT attached to another bone

hyoid bone

ventricle folds and true vocal folds


throat and esophagus

pharyngeal cavity

lips, tongue, cheeks, teeth, palate

oral cavity

nose and nasal passages

nasal cavity

branch of biology; considers the study of the mechanical functions of living organisms


branch of biology; considers the study of the structure of living things


a brain attack


blood flow is interrupted (clot) within or enroute to the brain

ischemic stroke

the food tube where food travels on way to stomach, subs as vibratory source for individuals who have larynx removed


lower jaw


made up of thyroid


any exchange of info by words, gestures, symbols, sounds, etc; language results in this, any exchange of ideas, involves message transmission and feedback


differences in speech and/or language features that can be attributed to some form of isolation


4 primary dialects of US

african american

spoken pacific to great lakes

general american dialect

spoken in appalachian, portions of ohio/tennessee valley
caw/car, ball/boil, fav/five

southern american dialect

spoken primarily north of NYC into the New England states; precise production of vowels

eastern american dialect

specific phonological rules that differ from general american dialect
"don't get none of..."
done+verb for past tense
han/hand, tess/test

african american dialect

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