65 terms

Reproduction

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ovary
One of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones
Luteal phase
Phase in which the LH (luteinizing hormome) causes the burst follicle to develop into corpus luteum (secretes estrogen and progesterone); progesterone causes glands in endometrium to mature and become prepared for implantation of an embryo; the estrogen and progesterone are essential in maintaining the endometrium
Follicle Stimulating Hormones
WOMEN: initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month and stimulates ovulation; MEN: stimulates sperm production
Seminiferous Tubules
Small convoluted tubules in the testes where spermatogenesis takes place.
Acrosome
A region at the head of a sperm cell that contains digestive enzyems which, when released during the acrosome reaction, can facilitate penetration of the corona radiata of the egg, and subsequently, fertilization
estrogen
female sex hormone
Uterus
Female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus.
placenta
A structure in the pregnant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother's blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes.
Cervix
Connects the Uterus to the Vagina.
Oviducts/Fallopian Tubes
Provides a pathway for the egg between the ovaries and uterus
Ovarian Cycle
Involves production and release of an oocyte from follicle and formation & degeneration of corpus lutrum. Divided into 3 phases - follicular, ovulatory, luteal
Epididymis
A coiled tube which lies on surface of testes; stores sperms cells for maturation
Vas Deferens
The tube in which muscular contractions propel the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Scrotum
A sac-like structure that holds the testes outside of the body
Testosterone
Produced by the interstitial cells which are found between seminiferous tubules in the testes
Ejaculatory Duct
Carries the sperm cells to the urethra
Cowper's Gland (aka bulbourethral gland)
A gland that also secretes mucoid fluid that is added to sperm
Prostate gland
Adds a chemical fluid to the semen
Sperm cells
Cells produced in the testes
Clitoris
Female erectile tissue between the labia
Fertilization
Sperm cell join egg cells
oogenesis
- production of female gamete
spermatogenesis
Formation of sperm.
Follicular phase
days 1-13, FSH stimulates development of follicle in the ovary. Primary oocyte to secondary oocyte. As follicle grows the capsule cell secretes estrogen.
oocyte
a female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions
penis
contains erectile tissue which, during sexual intercourse, fills with blood causing an erection.
seminal vesicles
the seminal vesicles add fluid to the sperm, this fluid contains large amounts of fructose which provide the sperm with energy.
semen
is the combination of sperm and seminal fluid.
male urethra
is the tube which conducts the semen through the penis and out of the body. It also conduct the urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Prostoglandin
Hormone secreted by the male seminal vesicle. It stimulates smooth muscle contractions of female uterus, which helps sperm travel up into the female reproduction system.
Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Found in males and in females; released by the hypothalamus and causes the anterior pituitary to release Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Negative Feedback Loop
A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original/normal state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring. Ie. keeps sperm/testosterone production relatively constant.
Positive Feedback Loop
-physiological change that leads to an even greater change in the same direction (self-amplifying). Ie. Promotes pregnancy. Also promotes the effects of Oxytocin for childbirth.
Follicles
Cortex of the ovaries contains many of these sac like structures which consist of a cellular capsule surrounding an oocyte
Ovulation
Happens once a month for women expecting periods and the time when a woman can get pregnant. During this time the oocyte is released from the ovary. And the remaining structures of the follicle form a structure called the corpus luteum
Vagina
Thin walled canal that runs from cervix to the outside of the females body, also serves as the birth canal and site that deposits sperm
Zygote
When sperm is present by the ovum, fertilization occurs in the oviduct resulting in this which is carried to the uterus until birth
ovum
A mature egg, the largest cell viable to the naked eye, it is produced in the ovary and eventually released into the fallopian tube during ovulation.
ovumation
when an ovum is released from the ovarian follicle to the nearest fallopian tube during menstral cycle to the nearest fallopian tube during your menstrual cycle. Sometimes two or three eggs can mature in a month the increase in LA triggers of ovulation. The egg then traveled into the uterus
menstruation phase
typically lasts from days 1 to 7 of the uterine cycle
erectile tissue
becomes engorged with blood due to sexual stimulation
testes
produce the male gamete
midpiece of sperm
Contains mitochondria which provide the energy needed for movement
tail of sperm
Beats like a flagellum to propel the sperm forward
endometrium
Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus
progesterone
A hormone produced and secreted by the ovary to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg.
oxytocin
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
fimbrae
FINGER-LIKE PROJECTIONS THAT REACH FOR THE OVA TO MOVE IT TO THE UTERUS
Gamete
a mature male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Meiosis
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Uterine Lining
The inner layer of the uterus. This tissue is normally shed monthly in response to the hormonal changes of the menstrual period.
Ovulatory Phase
The ovulatory phase typically occurs around day 14 of the ovarian cycle. A surge of luteinizing hormone causes the secondary oocyte to be released from the ovary through the process of ovulation
birth canal
The vagina and cervix
menstrual cycle/uterine cycle
The process of egg release and formation. Includes the follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstruation.
Human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (HCG)
stimulates the secretion of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy
spermatozoa
sperm cells
luteinizing hormone
A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation in females and androgen production in males.
seminal fluid
- mixed with sperm, aids in sperm transport by lubricating passageway
Sexual reproduction
When two parents contribute genetic information to offspring, resulting in a offspring who is genetically different from both parents.
gestation period
which is pregnancy, starting from fertilization to birth
secretory phase
last between 14 to 28 days and it's where uterus lining thickness, if fertilization doesn't occur then the lining sheds
Corpus Luteum
follicle that has released an egg and increases its secretion of progesterone
Menopause
termination of the ovarian and uterine cycles in older women
Vulva
common name for the external genital organs of a female
Interstitial Cells
cells of the male reproductive system that secrete the androgens (ex. testosterone)