bio 2

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b. cells, tissues, organs
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macrophage cells undergo a process called phagocytosis in which material is brought into a cell in the form of membrane vesicles and then transported along microtubules toward the cell center. Assuming that the centrosome is near the cell center, you can predict that these vesicles are moving to the ______ end of microtubules using the motor protein ______
active transportthe plasma membranes of some plant cells use transport proteins to move protons out of the cell against their concentration gradient. this is an example ofa protein with its N- terminus in the cytoplasm and its C- terminus in the extracellular spacewhich one of the following is considered an integral membrane protein? a. a protein with its N- terminus in the cytoplasm and its c- terminus in the extracellular space b. a protein attached to a transmembrane protein via hydrogen bonding c. a protein attached to a phospholipid via ionic bonding with the head group of the lipid molecule d. a protein capable of diffusing throughout a cytoplasm of a cellsecondary active transport by an antiporterin certain cells, a transport protein moves one calcium ion out of the cell against its concentration gradient while allowing the movement of three sodium ions into the cell down sodium's electrochemical gradient. which of the following correctly describes this cotransport of calcium and sodium? a. primary active transport b. secondary active transport by an antiporter c. secondary active transport by a symporter d. primary active transport by an antiportb. ribonucleic acidwhich of the following is NOT a component of an animal cell's plasma membrane? a. protein b. ribonucleic acid c. fatty acid d. carbohydratesecondary active transportsome plant cells take advantage of the high concentration of protons outside the cell to move solutes, such as sucrose, across the plasma membrane into the cell where the sucrose concentration is already relatively high. this type of transport is an example ofa. all cellswhich one of the choices below can be used to correctly begin the following sentence? "_____ have plasma membrane" a. all cells b. all animal and plant cells, but not bacterial cells c. all bacterial cells, but not animal and plant cells d. all plant and bacterial cells, but not animal cellsexocytosisthe process of a vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane and depositing into the extracellular space is referred to aslysosomeswhich of the following organelles could be considered recycling centers of eukaryotic cellsmitochondriaall of the following are properties of at least some prokaryotic cells exceptan antiportersodium-potassium pump is an example ofrough ermembranous structure attached to the eukaryotic nucleus to transport RNAplasmidDNA that is independent of the genetic material found in some bacteria and potentially capable of conferring new featuresnuclear poresin a eukaryotic organism, after RNA is synthesized in the nucleus, this is the space through which RNA passes through to get to other parts of the cellgolgi apparatuslocation in the cell where proteins may be redirected in the cell or modified by the addition of carbohydratescell wallstructure present in some cells that provides a rigid barrier and maintains turgor pressure in the cellcell membraneselectively permeable structure of a cell that regulates what enters and exits the cellperipheral_____ membrane protein is one that is temporarily associated with a biological membraneamphipathiccholesterol has an OH group on one end and a four- ringed structure on the other end, making it ______diffusionif an antibiotic tablet is put into water and dissolves from a tablet with particles moving randomly from it to make a uniform diluted mixture, this could be described as _____osmosisif water moving out of a blood cell because the salt concentration us higher outside of the cell, the movement of the water would be most specifically described as _____hypotonicif cell samples placed in water expand, it has been placed into an environment that is ____ compared to the inside of the beanhomeostasis_____ is the term used to describe how a cell controls and maintains its internal environmentbacteria_______ would be an example of a prokaryotic celldynamic instability is rapid shrinkage which causes for a slower growth. this causes microfilaments and tubules to be shorter/ longer based on the addition or subtraction of subunits. this allows for cell crawling and muscle contraction. it also allows for microtubules to move cells toward chromosomes to help with genetic infodescribe dynamic instability and explain the value of this processit would decrease the fluidity because it would fill in the gaps between the tails, using up space the tails need to moveif at normal temperatures, cholesterol was added to any of the cell structures made of these monomers, what would be the overall impact and whysubunit- actin monomer smallest (7nm) causes muscle contractions with myosinDescribe microfilamentssubunit- alpha, beta, tubulin dimers largest (25 nm) aid is cell movement by cilia and flagelladescribe microtubulesdiverse medium (10nm)intermediate filamentfound in the epidermis region of the skin. is responsible for the production of melanin which gives pigment and color to the skin and hairexplain the role of melanocytesfound in the epidermis. is responsible for forming "barricades" to help protect the skin from environmental changes like UV rays and temperatureexplain the role of keratinocytesreduce, decreaseLong, saturated fatty acid tails _____ lipid mobility and _____ membrane fluidity.hydrophobicThe interior region of a phospholipid bilayer is characterized as:up, low, highduring active transport, molecules move _____ a concentration gradient from _____ concentration, to a ______ concentrationusable energy available to the cell, total energy, unusable energyG= H-TS is the equation that describes Gibbs free energy. Rearranged the equation can be written as H= G + TS. in either case G stands for the ______ H stands for the _____ and S stands for the _____potential, covalentorganic molecules store ___ energy in their ____ bondsperipheral membrane proteins can move freely in association with the cell membranea researcher has devised a technique that allows her to label all the peripheral membrane proteins with a fluorescent tag, and has bleached a specific area of the cell membrane. after 24 hours, she notices that fluorescence has returned to the bleach area. what can she deduce from this experiment?through nuclear poresin a eukaryotic cell, how does mRNA get out of the nucleus?a. the use of an electrochemical gradient of one molecule to move a second moleculewhich one of the following is an example of secondary active transport? a. the use of an electrochemical gradient of one molecule to move a second molecules b. the use of potassium ion following the initial movement of sodium ions c. osmosis of water molecules across cell membrane d. the use of more than one type of transport protein for the movement of a moleculerepulsion of the phosphate groups from each otherthe potential energy in a molecule of ATP that is harnessed to do the work of the cell is held in part in thethe energy input needed to reach the transition statethe energy of activation of a reaction isd. nucleic acidwhich one of the following is NOT a component of an animal cell's plasma membrane a. protein b. fatty acid c. carbohydrate d. nucleic acidsecondary active transportglucose molecules move into cells lining the intestine against their concentration gradient driven by the movement of sodium ions into the cell down their concentration gradient as an example ofthe liposomes fuses with the phospholipid bilayer of the cellsome drugs are now being delivered into cells through liposomes, in which the drug is surrounded by phospholipid bilayer. How do you suppose the drugs enter into the cell?a. the energy of the starting materials for a reaction equals the sum of the product energies plus energy released as hear and disorderwhich of the following statement is true? a. the energy of the starting materials for a reaction equals the sum of the product energies plus energy released as hear and disorder b. the amount of useable energy resulting from a reaction is the same as the total energy available in the starting materials c. the entropy of the products of a reaction is always greater than then entropy of the starting material d. the entropy of the starting materials for a reaction is always greater than the entropy of the productsd. all cells have a plasma membranewhich of the following is true about the presence or absence of plasma membranes? a. only animal cells have a plasma membrane. b. plant cells and bacterial cells have a plasma membrane, but animal cells do not c. plant cells and animal cells have a plasms membrane, but bacterial cells do not d. all cells have a plasma membranethese lipid rafts are less fluid than the surrounding membrane at normal temperaturesSome lipid rafts are characterized by an accumulation of cholesterol. What does this mean for the fluidity of the raft domain?b. the golgi apparatusDisorders of which organelle are often associated with defects in transport from compartment to compartment, resulting in poor sorting of protein components within the cell?a. facilitated diffusionsuppose you are studying the transport of a certain polar molecules across the plasma membrane of cells in culture. over a period of time, you measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside of the cells. you find that the concentration of the molecule us lower in the cell but is gradually increasing. you also measure the ATP concentration inside the cell and find that it is not changing. which of the following is probably responsible for the transport of this polar substance into the cell? a. facilitated diffusion b. secondary active transport c. endocytosis d. active transportchemical potential, kinetic, heatyou have entered a 5k race. as you finish the last 500 yards, your body have converted _____ energy to _____ energy with the loss of ____primary active transportthe action of sodium potassium pumps moves sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into a cellsmooth erthis eukaryotic tunnel- like structure is the site of lipid synthesisvesiclemembrane enclosed small structures involved with transporting waste substances to exit the cell in eukaryotesnucleoidregion of DNA chromosomes in prokaryotic cellslysosomespecialized structure containing digestive enzymes to hold them at a functional pH separate from the rest of the eukaryotic cellmitochondriastructure in eukaryotes where glucose catabolism occursamphipathicmolecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are referred to asosmosisthe specific movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is referred to asactive sitethe portion of an enzyme that binds specifically to the substrate(s) is referred to as the _____ of the enzymeallostericif an enzyme has a site where a substrate binds and a site where an inhibitor or activator can bind to cause a conformational change, this enzyme ishypotonicif a red blood cell takes on water, it has been placed into a _____ environmentsmallest (high ratio of surface area to volume) no nucleus (nucleoid, plasmid DNA) lack organelles or organization bacteria or archaeaname 4 characteristics of prokaryoteslarger nucleus extensive compartmentalization or organelles various (humans, animals)name 4 characteristics of eukaryotesbreaks downs exergonic spontaneous produces ATP negative delta G because reactants have more energy than the productsdefine catabolic exergonic or endergonic? spontaneous or non? ATP? negative delta G or postive?builds endergonic non uses ATP delta G because the reactants have less energy than productsdefine anabolic exergonic or endergonic? spontaneous or non? ATP? negative delta G or postiverelease of energydefine exergonicabsorption of energydefine endergonicadenosine triphosphateATP =3 phosphates, ribose sugar, adenineWhat does the ATP molecule consist of?pH salt volumename 3 parameters that need to be stably maintained inside a cellstability made of a cell in the face of a changing environmentDefine cell homeostasis1. accelerate chemical reactions by lowering activation energy 2. for 3D structures w/ products and reactants 3. catalyze specific reactionsdescribe 3 characteristics of enzymes