Pathophysiology Chapter 12, Gould's Pathophysiology Chapter 12: Cardiovascular System Disorders

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The primary cause of septic shock is:
A. Allergic Reaction
B. Infection
C. Cardiac impairment
D. Fear
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Terms in this set (46)
The narrowing of an aortic or pulmonary valve that restricts the forward blood flow is referred to as: A. Stenosis B. Fibrosis C. Plaque formation D. Valvular infectionA. StenosisA regular but slow heart rate, often a result of vagal nerve or parasympathetic nerve stimulation, is referred to as: A. Tachycardia B. Endocardia C. Bradycardia D. ArrhythmiaC. BradycardiaThe combined abnormalities of pulmonary valve stenosis, ventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy are part of the congenital abnormality known as: A. Purkinje fiber disruption B. Tetralogy of Fallot C. Myocardial infarction D. Bundle of HisB. Tetralogy of FallotPlaques consisting of lipids, cells, fibrin, and debris, often with attached thrombi that can obstruct arteries and arterioles, are referred to as: A. Fibromas B. Prothrombi C. Sarcomas D. AtheromasD. AtheromasHypertension can be classified into the following three major categories: A. Primary, secondary, tertiary B. Active, passive, fatal C. Essential, secondary, malignant D. Subacute, acute, chronicC. Essential, secondary, malignantFactors that may lead to the formation of varicose veins include: A. Pregnancy, vitamin deficiencies, and mitral valve defects B. Diet, exercise, and obesity C. Trauma, lying in bed for prolonged periods, and liver failure D. Vein valve damage, wearing tight clothing, and inherited traitsD. Vein valve damage, wearing tight clothing, and inherited traitsHeart block occurs when the conduction is excessively delayed or stopped at the: A. AV node and neouromuscular synapse B. SA node and mitral valves C. SA node and Purkinje fibers D. AV node and bundle of HisD. AV node and bundle of HisThe pressure of blood at ejection from the left ventricle is referred to as: A. Peripheral resistance B. Diastolic pressure C. Systolic pressure D. Arterial pressureC. Systolic pressureRheumatic fever is an acute systemic inflammatory disease that can develop as a complicated of infection by: A. Hanta virus B. Group A Streptococcus C. Klebsiella pneumoniae D. Escherichia coliB. Group A StreptococcusA general term for all types of arterial charges, but most often applied to loss of elasticity of arteries and arterioles, is: A. Vascular stenosis B. Arteriosclerosis C. Atherosclerosis D. OsteoporosisB. ArteriosclerosisA severe chest pain as a result of oxygen deficit to the myocardium is referred to as: A. Myocardial infarction B. Dysrhythmia C. Arteriosclerosis D. Angina pectorisD. Angina pectorisThe type of shock that results from a loss of circulating blood volume is referred to as: A. Arterial shock B. Vasogenic shock C. Cardiac shock D. Hypovolemic shockD. Hypovolemic shockAortic aneurysms can be categorized according to their shape into the following three classifications: A. Dissecting, saccular, and fusiform B. Saccular, cylindrical, and superficial C. Fusiform, flat, and bulbous D. Flat, bulbous, and striatedA. Dissecting, saccular, and fusiformWhat is the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure?heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet metabolic demands of bodyHypertension would cause left or right sided heart failure?left sided heart failurePulmonary valve stenosis would cause left or right sided heart faillure?right sided heart failureHow do the kidney's compensate to maintain cardiac output in CHF pateints?increase renin and aldosterone secretion resulting in vasoconstrcition (increased afterload) and increased blood volume (increased preload)What is pericarditis?A swelling and irritation of the thin saclike membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium)What are signs and symptoms of percarditis?Chest pain, friction rub (grating sound heard on the chest), effusion (escape of fluid into a body cavity.), tachycardia, dyspnea,What does a slight decrease in the diameter of the arterioles cause?Increase in peripheral resistance, reduces the capacity of the system system, and increases the capacity of the system, increase diastolic pressure or afterloadWhat are other organs that are damaged by hypertension?kidney, brain and eyesWhat is the pathophysiology of hypertension?increase in arteriolar vasoCONSTRICTIONWhat is peripheral vascular disease?abnomrality in the arteries or vein oustide the heartWhat are signs and symptoms of peripheral vascular disease?increase fatigue and weakness in leg, intermittent claudication, paresthesias, tingling, burning, numbness, peripheral pulses to the occlusion are weak, skin is pallor, cynanosis when elevated and rubor and redness when danglingWhen valves are not efficient in peripheral vascular disease, what are signs and symptoms?edema, purple, warm, strong pedal pulsesHow would you treat Vein Peripheral vascular disease?ted stockings, compression, elvationWhat are signs of an occlusion in Arterial vascular disease?blue, cold, no pulse, painful, shinny shines, hairless legsWhat is an aneurysm?localized dilation and weakening of aterial wallWhat is the most common site for an aneurysm?abdominal or thoracic aortaWhat are varicose veins?irregular dilated and tortuous area of superficial veinsWhat can cause the development of varicose veins?defect of weakness in vein walls or valvesWhat are signs and symptoms of varicose veins?shiny, pigmented, hairless skin, varicose ulcers may develope, healing is slowWhat are some treatments for varicose veins?elevate legs, support stockings, avoid crossing legs and restrictive clothing, do not sit or stand for log periods or timeWhat is present in thrombophelitis that is not present in phlebothrombosis?inflammationWhat are signs and symptoms of thrombus?aching or burning and tenderness in the affected leg; leg may be warm and red in the inflamed vein; a thrombus in a deep vein (DVT) may cause aching pain, tenderness and edema, positive Homans sign (pain in the calf muscle when foot is dorsiflexed),---- systemic signs such as fever, malaise, and leucytosisWhat is Homans sign?pain in the calf muscle when foot is dorsiflexed, can indicate thrombus