APUSH Ch. 20- Commonwealth and Empire
Terms in this set (21)
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation, taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the it's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, etc. After his election in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt demonstrated support of progressive reforms by strengthening this.
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
Runs New York. He makes sure the democratic nominee wins, overcharges projects in the city to help his acquaintances, and he made money off the city. "Head of the Political Machine"
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons. Meant to stop political machines from handing out jobs to their supporters.
Political movement begun by farmers and members of labor unions in the late 1800's seeking to limit the power of big businesses and get the government to regulate banks, railroads, and improve working conditions.
An association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies.
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional.
Southern Farmer's Alliance
Agricultural reform organization of the 1880s which called for measures to improve the quality of rural life, regulation of monopolies in the interests of farmers, and inflation of the currency. Ultimately frustrated with their inability to influence legislation, they merged with the other Farmers' Alliances, labor organizations, and Greenbackers to form the Populist Party.
It was the first nationwide strike that began in Martinsburg, West Virginia. The strike lasted a week and over 100 people were killed. President Hayes deployed the US Army to disband the strike, which set a precedent and created the National Guard. Began as a railroad strike in 1877 to protest wage cuts and the use of federal troops against strikers.
March of unemployed workers demanding inflation and a public works program during the depression of the 1890's
American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
Philosophy that the government should expand the money supply by purchasing and coining all the silver offered to it.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. 3x candidate for President; former secretary of state; respected reformer; also was prosecutor in the Scopes Monkey Trial and argued to allow citizens the right to determine what is taught in their public schools.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Plessy v. Fergusson
This court case in 1896 set the stage for legalized racial segregation in America by ruling that "separate but equal" public facilities were legal. Reversed in Brown v Board of Ed.
Voters whose grandfather had been eligible to vote prior to January 1, 1867 were not required to take the literacy test... Only Whites were allowed to vote on that date.
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
Open Door Policy
(1899) A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Cuban independence and Cuban revolution, declared Cuba free but US still had full control of their decisions and money.
White Man's Burden
Idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized.
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