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Angiosperms are most closely related to ?


What was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant animals?


What is the green algae most closely related to plants?


Plants evolved from green algae approximately ? million years ago


? are an example of seedless vascular plants


The living plants that are most similar to the first plants to bear gametangia are the ?


What trait is not common to all green algae and land plants


What term describes the present time interval in the history of land plants

Angiosperm abundant

What group of green plants evolved last?


Which of the following pairs of plant groups are the most closely related?

Horsetails and ferns

What structure was an adaptation that allowed green plants to live on land


T/F? Nodes that are located near the top of a phylogenetic tree represent more recent common ancestors than nodes that are located near the bottom of the tree.


In moss, ? produce sperm


The sperm produced by mosses require ? to reach an archegonium


In the moss life cycle ? cells within a sporangium undergo ? to produce ? spores


In mosses gametes are produced by ?; in ferns gametes are produced by ?


The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern-day members of which group


Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that

plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae

Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"


Best adaptation for protection from desiccation


Best adaptation for transport of water, minerals, and nutrients

tracheids and phloem

What was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants

animal predation

Plant spores are produced directly by


Which is true of archegonia

They may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos

All are true about the life cycle of mosses except

the growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte

What is the sequence of structures that develop after germination

Protonema, Gametophore, Gametes, Embryo, Sporophyte

Two, small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest. The basins of both lakes are composed of the same geologic substratum. One lake is surrounded by dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not. Compared to the pond with Sphagnum, the pond lacking the moss mat should have

less-acidic water

Bryophytes never formed forests because

they lack lignified vascular tissue

In mosses gametes are produced by ?; in ferns gametes are produced by ?


Where do fern antheridia develop

on the underside of the gametophyte

The conspicuous part of the fern plant is a ?

diploid sporophyte

Which taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition


What characteristic didn't help seedless plants become better adapted to land

a dominant gametophyte

Flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separated gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is most closely related to


Which of the following types of plants would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal deposits

pine trees

If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite, then it

belongs to a species that is homosporous

Arrange structures from largest to smallest: spores, sporophylls, sporophytes, sporangia

Sporophytes, sporophylls, sporangia, spores

Trends in terrestrial vegetation

a trend from dominant gametophytes to dominant sporophytes; a trend from no true leaves, to microphylls, to megaphylls; a trend from soil-surface-hugging plants to 'overtopping' plants; a trend toward increased lignification of conducting systems

What is the sequence in which fossils should make their first appearance? Charophytes, single-celled green algae, hornworts, plants with a dominant sporophyte

single-celled green algae, charophytes, hornworts, plants with a dominant sporophyte

What is not common to all phyla of vascular plants

the development of seeds

In plants, what is produced by meiosis

haploid spores

Contrast gametophytes and sporophytes

Sporophytes are diploid, whereas gametophytes are haploid

Correct statement about the life cycle of a fern cycle.

Plant gametophytes are haploid multicellular bodies

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