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Introduction--explain secret societies

secret societies like the carboneria adn the society of the adelphi were sucessful in spain with ferdinand VII they would fail after their revolt in naples. when that happens, king F1 orders his regiments to stop the garrison, but they had been infiltrated!! so he grants a constitution. he appoints his son as reagent, then takes back power and ignore the constitution.

into-how do people feel after fail of secret societies

this leaves revolutionary feelings with peasants. there are autonomous feelings. restoration has succeeded but a greater wave of revolution will come a decade later. this was helped with the ideas of the enlightenment.

intro-what comes out of this

ideas that will emerge include
democratic republicanism
many revolutions

extra about revolutions

-the naples protest expands to sicily who hates opression--domino effect--F2 signs constitution in 1847--
-leopold 2 signs charter in tuscany 1848
-charles alber signs statuto in sardegna 1848
-pope creates charter 1848

necessary climate for revolution--romantics--what is the movement

-doesn't focus on reason, but instead FEELINGS, a sense of belonging.
-people are very IDEALISTIC which promotes NATIONALISM

romantics--what does the movement promote

people romanticize and look back on the middle ages and nobility. they admire the knights who are moved by feelings.
they are helped by the many students flocking to milan, tuscany, and pisa. these students join mazzini's new organization (giovane Italia)
THIS is where they agree that a national revolution is needed hat supports popular soveirgnity

mazzini and democratic republicanism...who is mazzini

mazzini was the leader
he comes from a wealthy, educated family. dad was a doctor. they sympathized with the revolution.
mazzini wants a SINGLE and free and united REPUBLICAN state

mazzini and 1833

when he tries for action, he fails with many arrests and then escapes. he always fails

why is mazzini's movement important?

young people, especially students are fascinated by the movement, but mazzini fails so he only creates martyrs.
1843 he fails again in the papal states. and 1844 in calabria. his supporters (bandiera bros) are executed.

gioberti and the papal federation

his basic idea is brought up in his book. he talks about italy as a national community with the CHURCH as the center root.
he wants a federation of states ruled by the pope.

why does gioberti think this would be perfect?

the state is worldly because of the pope and religion
the original rulers wont feel left out because they still are in rule
they will have military power from piedmont
failure of republicanism gives support to gioberti

what are some issues with the federation

if pope is head of church and state, what happens when there is a conflict with other countries?
lombardy and veneto are ruled by austria so they won't be a part of the federation.

why does gioberti think it WILL work

he really likes pope pius IX. he is young, liberal, and begins reforms. he shows.....
amnesty for arrestees
sympathy for gioberti
weakens censorship
creates a government with laypeople
therefore, it seems likely that unificiation will happen, but then the economy starts to suck and it fails. ciao ciao forever papal federation.

the piedmont empire...great beginnings

we begin with charles albert's statuto. this helps him retain royal power, religious equality, houses of parliament, right to assemble, and elections/appointments
since piedmont is strongest militarily and politically, CA takes advantage of other states in disarray. he wants to expand, but mainly kick out the austrians. he keeps failing so then he leaves and puts VE2 in charge (yayyy)

VE2 and his buddy cavour

-give quick intro to cavour and how powerful he is
-cavour's plan is to introduce the italian question. how does he do this? by getting involved in crimea and sitting at the winner's table.
-he makes a secret treaty with france at plombieres
-VE2 makes a speech about italian brotherhood
-austria attacks
-ve2 gives too much to france
-Cavour resigns, then comes back
-they notice garabaldi in the south
-cavour takes him down

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