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Terms in this set (66)
Requirements to become the President of the United States
1. Must be at least 35 years of age
2. Natural-born citizen
3. Resident of the United States for at least 14 years
Term of the President: states that the president can serve for four years, and then another four years if re-elected.
Should the president die in office
the vice-president assumes the office and can serve a maximum of ten years.
a. Two years of a president's remaining term and two elected terms, or
b. More than two years of a president's term followed by one elected term.
sets forth the chain of command should the president die or not be able to perform his duties.
Rules of Succession
a. Vice-President (1st in line),
b. Speaker of the House of Representatives (2nd in line),
c. President Pro-Tempore of the Senate (3rd in line),
d. Secretary of the State (4th in line), Treasury, Defense, and other Cabinet heads in order of the creation of their department.
In the event the president is still in office and the vice-president becomes unavailable
the 25th amendment directs the president to appoint a new vice-president. The House of Representatives and the Senate must both approve by a simple majority.
Powers of the President: Appointment Power
a. prior to the president entering office, he must appoint almost 3,000 positions of which almost 1,000 must be approved by Congress. The most important appointments are to his Cabinet.
i. The Cabinet is the formal body of presidential advisers who head the fifteen executive departments.
Powers of the President: Power to Convene Congress
a. this is an important power in the event that Congress is not in session and a danger to the United States, or an extraordinary event takes place. The president has the authority to call both chambers back in order for the president to address congress.
Powers of the President: Power to Make Treaties:
a. but all treaties with foreign nations must be approved by a 2/3's vote of the Senate.
i. Executive Agreement: at times the president attempts to avoid the 2/3's vote needed so they enter into an agreement, which allows the president to form secret and highly sensitive arrangements with foreign nations.
Powers of the President: Power to Veto
a. the president has the authority to veto any act of Congress. However, Congress can override the veto by a 2/3's vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Powers of the President: Pardoning Power
a. an executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime.
i. It is an executive grant releasing an individual from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime before or after conviction, and restores all rights and privileges of citizenship.
ii. The President can exercise complete pardoning power for federal offenses except in cases of Impeachment, which cannot be pardoned.
iii. Gerald Ford granted the most famous presidential pardon when he pardoned former President Richard Nixon, who had not been formally charged with any crime, "for any offenses against the United States, which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed while in the office. This absolute pardon prevented the former president from ever being tried for any crimes he may have committed.
Powers of the President:
a. Power to Preside Over the Military as Commander-in-Chief
The Executive Office of the President (EOP)
a mini-bureaucracy of several advisers to advise the president and to help him direct the diverse activities of the executive office.
The EOP includes
a. National Security Council,
b. Council of Economic Advisers
c. Office of Management and Budget
National Security Council
The most important office. the members include
a. Secretary of State,
b. Secretary of Defense,
c. Director of the Central Intelligence Agency,
The National Security Adviser
runs the staff of the National Security Council, coordinates information and options, and advises the President.
The Chief of Staff
is the most powerful person available to the President in the White House. The job of the Chief of Staff is to facilitate the smooth running of the staff and the executive branch of government.
Article III section I created the Federal Court System, and Article III section II sets forth the powers of the U.S. Supreme Court.
basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system
a. District Court: is the lowest court in the federal system and has original jurisdiction when a dispute is filed with this court. It is a trial court where lawsuits are heard for the first time.
b. Circuit Court: is the second court in the federal system. Litigants (people who had the dispute in the district court) appeal their case to the circuit court if they are unhappy with the district court's decision. This court has appellate jurisdiction meaning that both sides must file a Brief so that the judges are able to review the case before arguments are made.
c. United States Supreme Court: is the highest court in the country. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction.
when there is a dispute between states, the states can choose to go directly to the Supreme Court instead of the lower courts. It is a trial court now and any decision that is made is final and cannot be appealed.
the Supreme Court hears the appeals from the Circuit Court as well as cases coming from the highest court.
Writ of Certiorari
any litigant who is requesting that the Supreme Court must file a writ of certiorari. The Supreme Court will review the briefs and decide if they will hear it or not.
Rule of Four
the case will be heard if four justices agree to hear it
a prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for settling future cases of a similar nature.
reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions in new cases. (process of using precedent)
government of the United States is a two house legislature
legislation consists of
The House of Representative and the Senate
The total number of Reps in the House is
the number of Reps per state is based on
the state's population
Members of the House of Reps serve
Every 10 years the United States Census adjusts the number of Reps each state is allotted.This constitutional mandate is called
This process of redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases and decreases in the number of seats allotted to a state, as well as population shifts within a state is called
apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party. This apportionment is illegal.
is not based on population of the state. Each state has 2 Senators for a total of 100 Senators that serve, and they serve for 6 years.
The Constitution specifically gives Congress its most important power
the authority to make laws
A proposed law is called a
A proposed law can only become law with consent of each house of Congress
A 2/3 vote is needed from the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Powers that are constitutionally shared by both houses include the powers to
1. declare war
2. raise an army and navy
3. coin money
The House of Representatives
is responsible to formally initiate, charge and pass articles of impeachment against the president, vice-president and other "civil officers" including federal judges, with "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors." In order to pass, there must be a majority vote. If successful, then the individual is impeached.
Once it is passed then it is the responsibility of the Senate to conduct trials of impeachment, and only with a 2/3 vote can the accused be removed from office.
the majority party
The party in each house with the most members is called
the minority party
The party in each house with the second most members is called
Speaker of the House
He or She is elected by the House of Representatives at the beginning of each new Congress. The prior Speaker was Nancy Pelosi, and the new speaker is John Boehner. The Speaker is the second person in the line of succession for the Presidency.
the majority leader
The second most powerful person in the House of Reps is
the minority leader
The third most powerful person in the House of Reps is
These individuals are elected by their own parties in what is called the... (for Democrats)
These individuals are elected by their own parties in what is called....(for Republicans)
The key member who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party and takes counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills and in general acts as communications link within a party is called the
The Constitution designates this individual to preside over the Senate and votes only in a case of a tie is the
In the event this individual does not step in, this person is in charge of the Senate and is the third in line for the Presidency.
There are 4 different types of committees in Congress
The Conference Committee
1. is a special joint committee that reconciles differences in bills passed by the House and Senate.
Is made up of those members from the House and Senate committees that originally considered the bill.
2. Bills that continue to go from one Congress to the next, and are referred for consideration is part of the
3. Through the public attention is established to quicken the process between the two houses of Congress in order to resolve matters such as the economy, taxation, and scandals. Made up of members from both houses.
Select or Special Committee
4. This committee which is appointed for a specific purpose, such as conducting a special investigation or study and who reports back to the chamber that established them is called the
The theory that politicians who are already in office are more likely to get re-elected is called
Vote trading, or voting yes to another politician's bill in return for a promise of future support is called
is legislation that allows representatives to bring home the bacon to their districts in the form of public works programs, military bases, or other programs designed to benefit their districts directly.
session in which a congressional committee rewrites legislation to incorporate changes discussed during hearings on the bill.
is a tactic used to prevent a bill from being voted on. A member of congress will speak for an unlimited period of time in the hopes that the bill will be tabled or killed. The member can talk about anything, even read from a phone book as long as the member keeps speaking.
is the only way to end a filibuster. Sixty senators must sign a motion and if the motion passes on the floor, members only have an additional thirty hours to debate the bill.
War Powers Act
the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas for a 60 day period in peacetime which can be extended for an extra 30 days to permit withdrawal unless congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.
Sign it or Veto it
the options for the President when a bill that is passed by both houses are presented to him
is when Congress adjourns during the 10 days the President has to consider a bill passed by both houses of Congress without the President's signature.
Requirements to become House of Representative
1. 25 years old
2. citizen of the U.S. for at least 7 years
3. legal resident of the state
Requirements to become Senate
1. 30 yrs old
2. citizen of the U.S. for at least 9 yrs
3. legal resident of the state where you seek election
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