Chapter 1: The Study of Behavioral Endocrinology
Terms in this set (45)
Male sex organs that produce and secrete a hormone called testosterone
Sex hormone that influences sexual behavior, aggression, territoriality, hibernation, and migration
The surgical removal or destruction of both testicles
Castrated males who played an important role as palace servants
1st formal study of endocrinology: castrated roosters who had a testicle re-implanted in their abdomens developed into fully functional adults (rather than capons). Proved that testes were necessary for cockerel development.
Pangenesis Theory of Inheritance
All body parts actively discharge bits and pieces of themselves into the blood system, where they are transported to the ovaries or testes and there assembled into miniature offspring resembling the parents. Berthold was a proponent of this theory.
Are organic, chemical messengers produced and released by specialized glands (Endocrine Glands). Are released from the endocrine glands, from which they travel to and along the bloodstream to reach target organs and tissues. Coordinate physiology and behavior of an animal by regulating, integrating, and controlling its bodily function.
Work together to elevate blood glucose prior to awakening (coordinates physiology in preparation for behavior).
The chemicals used by the nervous system in coordinating animals' activities (hormones are similar in function, but hormones can operate at a greater distance).
Chemical signals produced by cells of the immune system. Hormones may interact with cytokines to affect behavior (especially when ill or stressed).
Chemicals that mimic natural hormones. Can initiate the same hormone-behavior pathways as can natural hormones in foodchain or blood supply.
Hormone-Receptor Interactions Lead to
1. Activation of enzymatic pathways
2. Effects on gene expression and protein synthesis
o The newly synthesized proteins may activate or deactivate genes → another cascade of cellular events
3. Non-Genomic Effects of Hormones
o Behavioral effects of hormones not caused by activation of the genetic machinery
Effects of Hormones
1. Alter the rate of cellular function.
2. Can change morphology and size of cells.
3. May affect neuronal growth and development, and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Output organs (muscles are the most common)
We assume birds sing when they are happy because humans sing when happy.
To understand behavior, we must observe:
When does the behavior occur?
What elicits the behavior?
Is this a common behavior amongst the population?
Simple Systems Approach
Non-human animals represent "simple systems"; most research in this area only involves a few "simple systems" behaviors.
Four Levels of Analysis
Immediate Causation, Development, Evolution, Adaptive Function
Encompasses underlying physiological, or proximate, mechanisms responsible for a given behavior.
Concerns the full range of the organism's lifetime from conception to death.
a. Behavioral processes and repertoires of animals change throughout their lives as a result of the interaction between genes and environmental factors
b. Hormonal events affecting the fetal and newborn animal can have pervasive influences later in life
Involve many generations of animals and address the ways that specific behaviors change during the course of natural selection.
a. Relies on comparing existing species that vary in relatedness
Concerned with the role that behavior plays in the adaptation of animals to their environment and with selective forces that currently maintain behavior.
Behavior is composed of three interacting components:
1. Input systems (sensory systems)
2. Integrators (central nervous system)
3. Output systems (effectors - muscles)
How Might Behavior Affect Hormones?
Behavior can affect hormone concentrations (ex: sight of a territorial intruder → elevate blood testosterone levels). In humans, sexual behavior increases blood testosterone levels more than testosterone levels increase sexual behavior. In women testosterone was elevated prior to sexual intercourse compared to other times.
Three conditions must be satisfied by the experimental results for a causal link between hormones and behavior to be established:
1. A hormonally dependent behavior should disappear when the source of the hormone is removed or the actions of the hormone are blocked.
2. After the behavior stops, restoration of the missing hormonal source or its hormone should reinstate the absent behavior.
3. Finally, hormone concentrations and the behavior in question should be covariant; that is, the behavior should be observed only when hormone concentrations are low.
The removal or extirpation of the suspected source of a hormone
A test of the effects of the hormone on a living animal (not necessarily the same animal that the hormone came from). (Ex: Behavioral Bioassays: "Water drive" - newts injected with prolactin → newts seek water)
Technique that increased the precision with which hormone concentrations could be measured, based on the principle of competitive binding of an antibody to its antigen.
Technique similar to RIA, but doesn't require radioactive tagging instead the antibody that changes the optical density of the substrate molecule, based on the principle of competitive binding
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
Technique of using standard curves to interpolate the amount of hormone in a sample from an RIA
Techniques use antibodies to determine the location of a hormone in the body
Is typically used to determine hormonal uptake and indicate receptor location
Allow determination of whether or not a particular protein or nucleic acid is present in a specific tissue
In Situ Hybridization
Technique used to identify cells or tissues in which messenger RNA molecules encoding a specific protein are being produced
Used to turn on specific neurons or brain centers
The identification of hormones and neurotransmitters, and the development for medical purposes of synthetic agonists (mimics) and antagonists (blockers) → increased knowledge of the functioning of the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems
General Agonists and Antagonists
Agents can stimulate or inhibit endocrine function by influencing hormonal release
Receptor Agonists and Antgonists
Act directly on hormone receptors (either enhancing or negating effects of a hormone)
Technique in which hollow electrodes or fine tubes (cannulas) are inserted into:
• Specific areas of the brain and used to introduce substances into those sites
• The jugular vein, carotid artery, or other blood vessel
The blood systems of two animals are connected by tubing to see if the endocrine condition of one animal can cause a behavioral change in the other
Technique, based on dialysis, in which a semipermeable membrane that allows passage of water and small molecules divides two fluid compartments
Procedures that make it possible to visualize areas of the human brain that are activated by different types of stimuli, tasks, or behaviors. The two most common techniques used in perception research are positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Common genetic manipulations include insertion (transgenic) or removal (knockout) of the genetic instructions encoding a hormone or the receptor for a hormone
Used to determine the relative gene expression during the onset of a behavior, change in developmental state, or among individuals hat vary in the frequency of a given behavior or hormonal state
Ablation and Replacement
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Chapter 2: The Endocrine System
Chapter 3: Sex Differences in Behavior - Sex Determination and Differentiation
Chapter 4: Sex Differences in Behavior - Animal Models and Humans
Chapter 5: Male Reproductive Behavior