44 terms

MIS Ch. 6


Terms in this set (...)

Information granularity
refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
real-time information
immediate, up-to-date information
real-time systems
provide real-time information in response to requests
data inconsistency
occurs when the same data element has different values
data integrity issues
occur when a system produces incorrect, inconsistent, or duplicate data
data governance
refers to the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data
maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
database management system (DBMS)
creates, reads, updates and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security
structured query language (SQL)
asks users to write lines of code to answer questions against a database
data element (data field)
smallest or basic unit of information
data models
logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures
provides details about data
data dictionary
compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model
relational database model
stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
relational database management system
allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database
also referred to as a table; stores information about a person, place, thing, transaction, or event
also called columns or fields; the data elements associated with an entity
a collection of related data elements
primary key
a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given record in a table
foreign key
a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
physical view
of information deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
logical view
of information focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs
data redundancy
the duplication of data, or the storage of the same data in multiple places
information integrity
a measure of the quality of information
relational integrity constraints
rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints
business-critical integrity constraints
enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints
data-driven website
an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database
data warehouse
a logical collection of information, gathered from many different operational databases, that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms it using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads it into a data warehouse
data mart
contains a subset of data warehouse information
the common term for the representation of multidimensional information
information cleansing/scrubbing
a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information
data quality audits
ran to determine the accuracy and completeness of data
data mining
the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
structured data
already in a database or a spreadsheet
unstructured data
do not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails, and so on
text mining
analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences
cluster analysis
a technique used to divide information sets into mutually exclusive groups such that members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
association detection
reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships
market basket analysis
analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services
statistical analysis
performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis
time-series information
is time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency
predictions based on time-series information
forward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes