37 terms

Bio chapter 8 yo

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Why is ATP useful to cells?
"ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
"In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates"
ATP
Compound used by cells to store and release energy
Heterotroph
Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things also called a consumer
Autotroph
Organism that is able to capture energy from the sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds also called a producer
What is the difference between ATP and ADP
ATP has three phosphates, ADP only has two.
Organisms that make their own food are called....?
Autotrophs
Energy is released upon the conversion of
ATP to ADP
One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to
Carry out active transport
Why are mushrooms considered heterotrophs?
Mushrooms feed by absorbing decomposing nutrients from organisms
What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
"Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments"
What are electron carrier molecules?
"An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
"Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products).
Pigment
Light absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the suns energy
Chlorophyll
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Thylakoid
Saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
Stroma
Fluid portion of the chloroplast outside of the thylakoids
NADP+
Carrier molecule that transfers high energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Light dependent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Light independent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light, energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugar also called the calvin cycle
The reactants of photosynthesis are
CO2 and H2O
Chlorophyll Molecules are located in the
thylakoid membranes
Photosynthesis takes place inside the organelles called
Chloroplasts
When chlorophyll absorbs light the electrons produced are same to a hot potato in that both
have a lot of energy and require a carrier to be transported
What would likely be the result of covering a healthy green leaf with aluminum foil?
The leaf would lose its green color due to the breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaf
What happens during the light dependent reactions?
"The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
What happens during the light independent reactions?
"During the light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars. "
What factors affect photosynthesis?
"Among the most important factors that affect photosynthesis are temperature, light intensity, and the availability of water"
Photosystem
Cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
Electron transport chain
Series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high energy electrons during ATP generating reactions
ATP synthase
Cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions to pass through it
Calvin cycle
Light independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high energy compounds such as sugar
The photosystems contain pigments that absorb light and pass energy on to
electrons
The major products of the light dependent reactions are
ATP and NADPH
In photosynthesis carbon dioxide is used to make sugars during
the calvin cycle
What is the function of NADPH and ATP in the calvin cycle
They provide the energy required to build high energy sugars
How do CAM plants photosynthesize under bright hot conditions without dying out
By sealing their leaves against water loss and trapping carbon as organic acids