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population density

number of individuals per unit of area


movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population


movement of individuals out of a population

exponential growth

growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

logistic growth

growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support

density-dependent limiting factor

limiting factor that depends on population size

predator-prey relationship

mechanism of population control in which a population is regulated by predation

density-independent limiting factor

limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size


scientific study of human populations

demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

limiting factor

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

age-structure diagram

graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population


group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area


group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offsprings


biological diverstity; the sum total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere

renewable resources

resource that can regenerate quickly and that is replaceable

nonrenewable resources

resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes

green revolution

introduction of intensive farming practices that lead to a substantial increase in crop yields

biological magnification

increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web

invasive species

plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native


farming strategy in which large fields are cleared, plowed, and planted with a single, highly productive crop year after year

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