Lingua francaA language that makes trade or communication easier between people who speak two different native languageslingua franca examplesLatin America: spanish
Eastern Europe: Russian
East asia: Mandarin
Middle east/north africa: arabic
Eastern africa: swahili
world: englishisoglossA geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs. Lines that divide dialects ex: tennis shoes vs sneakers in northeastrole of internet in diffusion and extinctionthe internet allows diffusion to become more widespread, ease of access (many people have phones/internet, so the technology spreads quickly and to nearly everyone)Examples of famous multilingualism & fragmentation (ex: Belgium, Nigeria, Switzerland, Caucasus)from a website: If you look at the map on Belgium, you will notice the many countries that border the country. Walloons (southern populations in Beligum) speak French due to the location. People in northern Beligum speak a dialect of Dutch and German known as Flemish.
One of the conflicts with the language differences is seen on road signs. As one travels from north to south in Beligum, the road signs change to reflect the changing culture. The country does have government representatives for each of the languages to ensure that the country is equally divided in linguistics.
Switzerland has a reputation of being the nuetral country. Being centrally located in Europe, there are many languages that are used in Switzerland. There are four major langauges in Switzerland: German, French, Romansh, and Italian. The official languge in Switzerland is Romansh that local government votedon in 1938.
guessing nigeria: lots of indigenous languages but english is official bec colonializationExtinct Language/Groups, Revived Language (ex: Hebrew, Celtic, Welsh)hebrew:has been revived- jewish bible written in hebrew- diminished in 4th century
celtic/welsh: dying idkReason for various English dialectsDifferent regions/needs for language
Outside influences (such as large immigrant populations) in certain areas can produce accents (ex: New York/Jersey accents influenced by Italian/European presence), can adopt words/slang from other languages
The dialects are preserved when groups live in isolation from each otherRole of language fragmentation (centripetal vs centrifugal forces); preservation and isolation (Basque, Iceland)Language fragmentation = centrifugal, when a country has multiple dialects and languages used, there is less commonalities between its people