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50 terms

Constitutionalism and Absolutism

The two models of European political developement.
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James I
King of Scotland, believer in divine right of kings. 1603 became king of England after elizabeth I died without and heir.
Problems inhereted by James I
large debt to other countires and an extreamly divided church.
James I role of Parliament
They allowed him to levy taxes called impositions, he was regarded for his authority.
How James I raised revenue
He used taxes called imopsitions
Impositions
the right of parliament to soley raise taxes.
James I and the Puritians
he did NOT like them. He hired a bishop to represent prepriators. He wanted to strenghten the power of the Anglician Church.
**Caused the Puritains to go to Plymouth**
Problems James I created
He forced large groups of skilled people out of Europe/England because they would not conform. People believed he had a male lover (the Duke of Buckingham)
James I foreign policy
He created a peace with Spain. His people believed this was pro-Catholic so once he died they went to war with Spain.
Charles I
The king of Scotland the son of James I.
Cahrles I Extraparliamentary measures
levying new tarrifs (he also collected discontinued taxes ex. ship money) Forced loans imposing fines on those who oppoesed. Quartered troops.
Parliaments reaction to Charles I
Petition of Rights.
Petition of Rights
No forced loans, or taxation without pariament's concent.
Charles I reaction to the Petition of Rights
He dissolved Parlaiment.
Charles I years without Parliament
he did not need to negotiate finances with his advisors, imposed strictly efficent & centrailized government, new legal funding, stricter laws, and new areas were now taxed.
Charles I effects of war on Scotland
he had insufficent resources for the war, Parliament was divied by the war.
Long Parliament characteristics
1640-1660 acted with wide spread suport and general unanimity when it was created. Chalres reinstated Parliament when he was inneed of help. The longest parliamentary meeting.
Civil war during Charles I rule
Key issues: taxation, rulers, parliament, army funds, Scotland, and religion. Sides: Moderate puritians (presbyterians) ,extreame puritians (independance) , and conservitatives.
Parliamentary success
1) the alliance with Scotland (1643) that commited Parliament to a Presbyterian church system.
2) The recognition of the Parlimentary army under Oliver Cromwell.
Oliver Cromwell
Extraodrinary military leader. Created a strong new model army with only soldiers. Supried attacks, specialized forces, new training, new weapons, don't have to be a member of parliamnet to be leader of the army.
Rump Parliment
The remaining member of Paliament (who were not run out but the Puritians) who put Charles I on trial for high treason.
Puritian Republic dominated by Oliver Cromwell
his army brutially conquested Scotland and Ireland . His disbannded parliament in (1653) he thenn ruled as the Lord Protector.
Charles II
King of England with good political skills heirarchy in the monarchy, reinstated Parliament Lords and Commons.
Charles II beliefs
Catholic wanted to allow Catholics and Protestants to worship freely.
Charles II and Parliament
Carles wanted to go to war but Parliament refused to fund the war untill he reorgainized his plans.
Claredon Code
A series of laws created by Parliamnet that excluded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians and Independants form official religous and political life of the nation.
Test Act
required all civil and military officails of the crown to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Charles II relationship with Loius XIV
he is willing to work/comprimise with Louis XIV, they wanted to untite Europe.
James II
King of England, Charles II son
James II relationship with Paliament
he did not like Paliament he repealed the test act and when Paliament balked he dissolved them. He suspended all religous freedoms.
James II gola of Absolutism
to attack local authority (ie nobles) he wanted to be like Louis XIV.
The Glorious Revolution
when there was a peaceful change in leaders with almost no bloodshed.
James II fled England...
... because his wife had a male child so he now had an heir Citizens was this a Roman Catholic dynsty in the making. Willaim of Orange believed he should have been king so he brought an army to England (with support) James II fled to France.
Lessons learned by Louis XIII learned from Henry IV, the Duke of Sully & Louis VIII
they both preached religous tolerance. Henry VI extended the Edict of Nantes to the French protestants. Louis XIII-a strong monarchy.
Lessons learned by Louis XVI from Cardinal Richelieu
He tried to impost direct royal administrations on France.
Louis XIV foreign policy
to succure territory and boundries for France.
Resentment toward Louis XIV
he revoked the Edict of Nantes.
Louis XIV
King of England, he was an absolute ruler, he disbanded parliament and then ruled by himself.
Fronde's effects on Louis XIV
they showed him that so many strong policies could endanger his rule, he tried to increase the power of the monarchy.
Louis XIV Personal rule
1) rule without parliament: rebels could challange him directly and he would not blame an incoppetant minister.
2)stratiges to become a stong leader: curtial parliamnets power, nobles depened on monarchy for housing at Versailles-huge palace- outspend nobles- showed that he would never threaten the power of the nobles.
3) king by divine right rule: bishop Jacques- Be'nigne Bossuet proved divine right rule with the old testament and the bible.
Versailles
huge palace created by Louis XIV. He hoped it would impress the French crown, his usd it to proclaim his power and wealth, and nobles had to pay for their residancy.
Louis XIV controlled nobles
nubles wanted to stay at Versailes to influnce the king. it threatened their local standing- being away at Versailles showed the people that the nobles didn't have contolr over what they did.
Louis XIV beleif in uniformity and suppression of Jansenists
Jesuits served as his confessors. political unity required religous uniformity. repressed roman catholic and protestants. he suppressed Jansenists because nobles supported them not the monarhcy; endangered his rule.
Jean- Baptiste Colbert
1619-1683 minister. He was able to help raise a large powerful army. He wanted international boundries for France. he wanted to secure the wealth and econmy of France. He had the state apply merchantillistic pollicies.
Policy of mercantilism
that the colonies exist for the benifit of the mother country alone. Way to keep control.
Marquis of Louvois
1641- 1691 Louis XIV war minister. crreated a professional army that only employed soldier= a strong army.
War of Devolution
1667-1668 between the Spanish and Neatherland. Caused by Louis belief that the Netherlands should have been inherited by Marie- Theresias. Results: granted Louis contorl fo the border states of the Netherlends.
Invasion of the Netherlands
1672 caused by the Treaty of Dover. England & France vs Dutch. William of Orange alligned with Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Lorraine and Brandonburg against Louis XIV. It was a relgious war.
Louis XIV actions toward the Hugeunots
he revoked the edict of Nantes- persicuted hugeunots and banned them from public or government offices.
The revotion of the edict of Nantes resulted in the hugeunots HATING him and many highly skilled people fled from France.
Nine years war
1689-1697 League of Augsburg vs. France causes: Louis XIV was distracted so a coalitin formed. Results: nine years war- England and France struggled for the conotlr of norht america. ended by the peace of Ryswick.
War of Spanish Succession
France vs. Grand Alliance causes: Charles II ided without an heir. Countries struggled for the contorl of the crown. Results: Treaty of Utretch- Peace with England and the Treaty of Rastadt- Peace with Holland.